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* [PATCH 1/2] Add a manpage for watch_queue(7)
@ 2020-08-24 15:30 David Howells
  2020-08-24 15:30 ` [PATCH 2/2] Modify the pipe(2) manpage for notification queues David Howells
  2020-08-27 11:54 ` [PATCH 1/2] Add a manpage for watch_queue(7) Michael Kerrisk (man-pages)
  0 siblings, 2 replies; 8+ messages in thread
From: David Howells @ 2020-08-24 15:30 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: mtk.manpages, me
  Cc: torvalds, dhowells, keyrings, linux-fsdevel, linux-man,
	linux-api, linux-kernel

Add a manual page for the notifications/watch_queue facility.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
---

 man7/watch_queue.7 |  304 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 1 file changed, 304 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 man7/watch_queue.7

diff --git a/man7/watch_queue.7 b/man7/watch_queue.7
new file mode 100644
index 000000000..14c202cef
--- /dev/null
+++ b/man7/watch_queue.7
@@ -0,0 +1,304 @@
+.\"
+.\" Copyright (C) 2020 Red Hat, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
+.\" Written by David Howells (dhowells@redhat.com)
+.\"
+.\" This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
+.\" modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public Licence
+.\" as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version
+.\" 2 of the Licence, or (at your option) any later version.
+.\"
+.TH WATCH_QUEUE 7 "2020-08-07" Linux "General Kernel Notifications"
+.SH NAME
+General kernel notification queue
+.SH SYNOPSIS
+#include <linux/watch_queue.h>
+.EX
+
+pipe2(fds, O_NOTIFICATION_PIPE);
+ioctl(fds[0], IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_SIZE, max_message_count);
+ioctl(fds[0], IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_FILTER, &filter);
+keyctl_watch_key(KEY_SPEC_SESSION_KEYRING, fds[0], message_tag);
+for (;;) {
+	buf_len = read(fds[0], buffer, sizeof(buffer));
+	...
+}
+.EE
+.SH OVERVIEW
+.PP
+The general kernel notification queue is a general purpose transport for kernel
+notification messages to userspace.  Notification messages are marked with type
+information so that events from multiple sources can be distinguished.
+Messages are also of variable length to accommodate different information for
+each type.
+.PP
+Queues are implemented on top of standard pipes and multiple independent queues
+can be created.  After a pipe has been created, its size and filtering can be
+configured and event sources attached.  The pipe can then be read or polled to
+wait for messages.
+.PP
+Multiple messages may be read out of the queue at a time if the buffer is large
+enough, but messages will not get split amongst multiple reads.  If the buffer
+isn't large enough for a message,
+.B ENOBUFS
+will be returned.
+.PP
+In the case of message loss,
+.BR read (2)
+will fabricate a loss message and pass that to userspace immediately after the
+point at which the loss occurred.  A single loss message is generated, even if
+multiple messages get lost at the same point.
+.PP
+A notification pipe allocates a certain amount of locked kernel memory (so that
+the kernel can write a notification into it from contexts where allocation is
+restricted), and so is subject to pipe resource limit restrictions - see
+.BR pipe (7),
+in the section on
+.BR "/proc files" .
+.PP
+Sources must be attached to a queue manually; there's no single global event
+source, but rather a variety of sources, each of which can be attached to by
+multiple queues.  Attachments can be set up by:
+.TP
+.BR keyctl_watch_key (3)
+Monitor a key or keyring for changes.
+.PP
+Because a source can produce a lot of different events, not all of which may
+be of interest to the watcher, a single set of filters can be set on a queue
+to determine whether a particular event will get inserted in a queue at the
+point of posting inside the kernel.
+.SH MESSAGE STRUCTURE
+.PP
+The output from reading the pipe is divided into variable length messages.
+.BR read (2)
+will never split a message across two separate read calls.  Each message
+begins with a header of the form:
+.PP
+.in +4n
+.EX
+struct watch_notification {
+	__u32	type:24;
+	__u32	subtype:8;
+	__u32	info;
+};
+.EE
+.in
+.PP
+Where
+.I type
+indicates the general class of notification,
+.I subtype
+indicates the specific type of notification within that class and
+.I info
+includes the message length (in bytes), the watcher's ID and some type-specific
+information.
+.PP
+A special message type,
+.BR WATCH_TYPE_META ,
+exists to convey information about the notification facility itself.  It has
+the following subtypes:
+.TP
+.B WATCH_META_LOSS_NOTIFICATION
+This indicates one or more messages were lost, probably due to a buffer
+overrun.
+.TP
+.B WATCH_META_REMOVAL_NOTIFICATION
+This indicates that a notification source went away whilst it is being watched.
+This comes in two lengths: a short variant that carries just the header and a
+long variant that includes a 64-bit identifier as well that identifies the
+source more precisely (which variant is used and how the identifier should be
+interpreted is source dependent).
+.PP
+.I info
+includes the following fields:
+.TP
+.B WATCH_INFO_LENGTH
+Bits 0-6 indicate the size of the message in bytes, and can be between 8 and
+127.
+.TP
+.B WATCH_INFO_ID
+Bits 8-15 indicate the tag given to the source binding call.  This is a number
+between 0 and 255 and is purely a source index for userspace's use and isn't
+interpreted by the kernel.
+.TP
+.B WATCH_INFO_TYPE_INFO
+Bits 16-31 indicate subtype-dependent information.
+.SH IOCTL COMMANDS
+Pipes opened with
+.B O_NOTIFICATION_PIPE
+have the following
+.BR ioctl (2)
+commands available:
+.TP
+.B IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_SIZE
+The ioctl argument is indicates the maximum number of messages that can be
+inserted into the pipe.  This must be a power of two.  This command also
+pre-allocates memory to hold messages.
+.IP
+This may only be done once and the queue cannot be used until this command has
+been done.
+.TP
+.B IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_FILTER
+This is used to set filters on the notifications that get written into the
+buffer.  See the section on filtering for details.
+.SH FILTERING
+.PP
+The
+.B IOC_WATH_QUEUE_SET_FILTER
+ioctl argument points to a structure of the following form:
+.PP
+.in +4n
+.EX
+struct watch_notification_filter {
+	__u32	nr_filters;
+	__u32	__reserved;
+	struct watch_notification_type_filter filters[];
+};
+.EE
+.in
+.PP
+Where
+.I nr_filters
+indicates the number of elements in the
+.IR filters []
+array, and
+.I __reserved
+should be 0.  Each element in the filters array specifies a filter and is of
+the following form:
+.PP
+.in +4n
+.EX
+struct watch_notification_type_filter {
+	__u32	type;
+	__u32	info_filter;
+	__u32	info_mask;
+	__u32	subtype_filter[8];
+};
+.EE
+.in
+.PP
+Where
+.I type
+refers to the type field in a notification record header;
+.IR info_filter " and " info_mask
+refer to the info field; and
+.I subtype_filter
+is a bit-mask of permitted subtypes.
+.PP
+A notification matches a filter if all of the following are true:
+.in +4n
+.PP
+(*) The type on the notification matches that on the filter.
+.PP
+(*) The bit in subtype_filter that matches the notification subtype is set.
+Each element in subtype_filter[] covers 32 subtypes, with, for example,
+element 0 matching subtypes 0-31.  This can be summarised as:
+.PP
+.in +4n
+.EX
+F->subtype_filter[N->subtype / 32] & (1U << (N->subtype % 32))
+.EE
+.in
+.PP
+(*) The notification info, masked off, matches the filter info, e.g.:
+.PP
+.in +4n
+.EX
+(N->info & F->info_mask) == F->info_filter
+.EE
+.in
+.PP
+If no filters are set, all notifications are allowed by default and if one or
+more filters are set, notifications are disallowed by default.
+WATCH_TYPE_META cannot, however, be filtered.
+.SH VERSIONS
+The notification queue driver first appeared in v5.8 of the Linux kernel.
+.SH EXAMPLE
+To use the notification mechanism, first of all the pipe has to be opened and
+the size must be set:
+.PP
+.in +4n
+.EX
+int fds[2];
+pipe2(fd[0], O_NOTIFICATION_QUEUE);
+int wfd = fd[0];
+
+ioctl(wfd, IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_SIZE, 16);
+.EE
+.in
+.PP
+From this point, the queue is open for business.  Filters can be set to
+restrict the notifications that get inserted into the queue from the sources
+that are being watched.  For example:
+.PP
+.in +4n
+.EX
+static struct watch_notification_filter filter = {
+	.nr_filters	= 1,
+	.__reserved	= 0,
+	.filters = {
+		[0]	= {
+			.type			= WATCH_TYPE_KEY_NOTIFY,
+			.subtype_filter[0]	= 1 << NOTIFY_KEY_LINKED,
+			.info_filter		= 1 << WATCH_INFO_FLAG_2,
+			.info_mask		= 1 << WATCH_INFO_FLAG_2,
+		},
+	},
+};
+
+ioctl(wfd, IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_FILTER, &filter);
+.EE
+.in
+.PP
+will only allow key-change notifications that indicate a key is linked into a
+keyring and then only if type-specific flag WATCH_INFO_FLAG_2 is set on the
+notification.
+.PP
+Sources can then be watched, for example:
+.PP
+.in +4n
+.EX
+keyctl_watch_key(KEY_SPEC_SESSION_KEYRING, wfd, 0x33);
+.EE
+.in
+.PP
+The first places a watch on the process's session keyring, directing the
+notifications to the buffer we just created and specifying that they should be
+tagged with 0x33 in the info ID field.
+.PP
+When it is determined that there is something in the buffer, messages can be
+read out of the ring with something like the following:
+.PP
+.in +4n
+.EX
+for (;;) {
+	unsigned char buf[WATCH_INFO_LENGTH];
+	read(fd, buf, sizeof(buf));
+	struct watch_notification *n = (struct watch_notification *)buf;
+	switch (n->type) {
+	case WATCH_TYPE_META:
+		switch (n->subtype) {
+		case WATCH_META_REMOVAL_NOTIFICATION:
+			saw_removal_notification(n);
+			break;
+		case WATCH_META_LOSS_NOTIFICATION:
+			printf("-- LOSS --\n");
+			break;
+		}
+		break;
+	case WATCH_TYPE_KEY_NOTIFY:
+		saw_key_change(n);
+		break;
+	}
+}
+.EE
+.in
+.PP
+
+.SH SEE ALSO
+.ad l
+.nh
+.BR keyctl (1),
+.BR ioctl (2),
+.BR pipe2 (2),
+.BR read (2),
+.BR keyctl_watch_key (3)



^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 2/2] Modify the pipe(2) manpage for notification queues
  2020-08-24 15:30 [PATCH 1/2] Add a manpage for watch_queue(7) David Howells
@ 2020-08-24 15:30 ` David Howells
  2020-08-27 11:54 ` [PATCH 1/2] Add a manpage for watch_queue(7) Michael Kerrisk (man-pages)
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 8+ messages in thread
From: David Howells @ 2020-08-24 15:30 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: mtk.manpages, me
  Cc: torvalds, dhowells, keyrings, linux-fsdevel, linux-man,
	linux-api, linux-kernel

Modify the pipe(2) manual page to cover support for notification queues

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
---

 man2/pipe.2 |   10 +++++++++-
 1 file changed, 9 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)

diff --git a/man2/pipe.2 b/man2/pipe.2
index 117f8950c..c50b38530 100644
--- a/man2/pipe.2
+++ b/man2/pipe.2
@@ -146,6 +146,13 @@ referred to by the new file descriptors.
 Using this flag saves extra calls to
 .BR fcntl (2)
 to achieve the same result.
+.TP
+.B O_NOTIFICATION_PIPE
+This enables use of the pipe as a notification transport (see
+.BR watch_queue (7)
+for more information).  When a pipe is in this mode, it may not be spliced as
+the insertion of notification messages into the pipe buffer can happen
+asynchronously and may cause splice to malfunction.
 .SH RETURN VALUE
 On success, zero is returned.
 On error, \-1 is returned,
@@ -292,4 +299,5 @@ main(int argc, char *argv[])
 .BR vmsplice (2),
 .BR write (2),
 .BR popen (3),
-.BR pipe (7)
+.BR pipe (7),
+.BR watch_queue (7)



^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 1/2] Add a manpage for watch_queue(7)
  2020-08-24 15:30 [PATCH 1/2] Add a manpage for watch_queue(7) David Howells
  2020-08-24 15:30 ` [PATCH 2/2] Modify the pipe(2) manpage for notification queues David Howells
@ 2020-08-27 11:54 ` Michael Kerrisk (man-pages)
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 8+ messages in thread
From: Michael Kerrisk (man-pages) @ 2020-08-27 11:54 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: David Howells, me
  Cc: mtk.manpages, torvalds, keyrings, linux-fsdevel, linux-man,
	linux-api, linux-kernel

Hi David,

It would be helpful if you labelled the subject "[PATCH v2 1/2]"
so that one could quickly see which of the patch series in my 
inbox is the newest. (I nearly replied to the wrong draft.)

On 8/24/20 5:30 PM, David Howells wrote:
> Add a manual page for the notifications/watch_queue facility.
> 
> Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
> ---
> 
>  man7/watch_queue.7 |  304 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  1 file changed, 304 insertions(+)
>  create mode 100644 man7/watch_queue.7
> 
> diff --git a/man7/watch_queue.7 b/man7/watch_queue.7
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000..14c202cef
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/man7/watch_queue.7
> @@ -0,0 +1,304 @@
> +.\"
> +.\" Copyright (C) 2020 Red Hat, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
> +.\" Written by David Howells (dhowells@redhat.com)
> +.\"
> +.\" This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
> +.\" modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public Licence
> +.\" as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version
> +.\" 2 of the Licence, or (at your option) any later version.

FWIW, and of course the decision is yours, the GPL is a license 
for code, not for documentation. Please consider using the "VERBATIM"
license instead (as you used in the mount manual pages).

> +.\"
> +.TH WATCH_QUEUE 7 "2020-08-07" Linux "General Kernel Notifications"
> +.SH NAME
> +General kernel notification queue
> +.SH SYNOPSIS
> +#include <linux/watch_queue.h>
> +.EX
> +
> +pipe2(fds, O_NOTIFICATION_PIPE);
> +ioctl(fds[0], IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_SIZE, max_message_count);
> +ioctl(fds[0], IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_FILTER, &filter);
> +keyctl_watch_key(KEY_SPEC_SESSION_KEYRING, fds[0], message_tag);
> +for (;;) {
> +	buf_len = read(fds[0], buffer, sizeof(buffer));
> +	...
> +}

Please no tabs in man-pages source (they can render strangely), and
the standard in man-pages is 4-space indents. (This needs fixing 
at multiple places below.)


> +.EE
> +.SH OVERVIEW
> +.PP

Preceding line unneeded, and mandoc lint will complain about such things.

Okay -- BOOM -- you jump right in here, in the following lines. Can we start
off with a paragraph or two that gently introduces this feature to
the reader who currently knows next to nothing about the topic (i.e., me).
Begin by telling the reader what problem is being solved here. And then
tell them that this page is describing the solution.

> +The general kernel notification queue is a general purpose transport for kernel

Why "general" twice in the preceding line?

Also, here you talk about "The... queue", as though there is only one of 
them, globally. But below, you talk about "queues", plural. I think
some rewording is needed.

> +notification messages to userspace.  Notification messages are marked with type
> +information so that events from multiple sources can be distinguished.

I think it might be helpful to mention a few examples of what things can 
be "sources".

> +Messages are also of variable length to accommodate different information for
> +each type.
> +.PP
> +Queues are implemented on top of standard pipes and multiple independent queues
> +can be created.  After a pipe has been created, its size and filtering can be
> +configured and event sources attached.  The pipe can then be read or polled to
> +wait for messages.
> +.PP
> +Multiple messages may be read out of the queue at a time if the buffer is large
> +enough, but messages will not get split amongst multiple reads.  If the buffer
> +isn't large enough for a message,

s/enough/enough for at least the next message/ ?

> +.B ENOBUFS
> +will be returned.
> +.PP
> +In the case of message loss,

Please, at or before this point, add an explanation of why loss could occur.
(I see that you say something about this later, but at this point in the page,
"loss" pops out of nowhere.)

> +.BR read (2)
> +will fabricate a loss message and pass that to userspace immediately after the
> +point at which the loss occurred.  A single loss message is generated, even if
> +multiple messages get lost at the same point.
> +.PP
> +A notification pipe allocates a certain amount of locked kernel memory (so that
> +the kernel can write a notification into it from contexts where allocation is
> +restricted), and so is subject to pipe resource limit restrictions - see
> +.BR pipe (7),
> +in the section on
> +.BR "/proc files" .
> +.PP
> +Sources must be attached to a queue manually; there's no single global event
> +source, but rather a variety of sources, each of which can be attached to by
> +multiple queues.  Attachments can be set up by:
> +.TP
> +.BR keyctl_watch_key (3)
> +Monitor a key or keyring for changes.
> +.PP
> +Because a source can produce a lot of different events, not all of which may
> +be of interest to the watcher, a single set of filters can be set on a queue
> +to determine whether a particular event will get inserted in a queue at the
> +point of posting inside the kernel.
> +.SH MESSAGE STRUCTURE
> +.PP
> +The output from reading the pipe is divided into variable length messages.
> +.BR read (2)
> +will never split a message across two separate read calls.  Each message
> +begins with a header of the form:
> +.PP
> +.in +4n
> +.EX
> +struct watch_notification {
> +	__u32	type:24;
> +	__u32	subtype:8;
> +	__u32	info;
> +};
> +.EE
> +.in
> +.PP
> +Where
> +.I type
> +indicates the general class of notification,
> +.I subtype
> +indicates the specific type of notification within that class and
> +.I info
> +includes the message length (in bytes), the watcher's ID and some type-specific
> +information.
> +.PP
> +A special message type,
> +.BR WATCH_TYPE_META ,
> +exists to convey information about the notification facility itself.  It has
> +the following subtypes:
> +.TP
> +.B WATCH_META_LOSS_NOTIFICATION
> +This indicates one or more messages were lost, probably due to a buffer
> +overrun.
> +.TP
> +.B WATCH_META_REMOVAL_NOTIFICATION
> +This indicates that a notification source went away whilst it is being watched.
> +This comes in two lengths: a short variant that carries just the header and a
> +long variant that includes a 64-bit identifier as well that identifies the
> +source more precisely (which variant is used and how the identifier should be
> +interpreted is source dependent).
> +.PP
> +.I info
> +includes the following fields:
> +.TP
> +.B WATCH_INFO_LENGTH
> +Bits 0-6 indicate the size of the message in bytes, and can be between 8 and
> +127.
> +.TP
> +.B WATCH_INFO_ID
> +Bits 8-15 indicate the tag given to the source binding call.  This is a number
> +between 0 and 255 and is purely a source index for userspace's use and isn't
> +interpreted by the kernel.
> +.TP
> +.B WATCH_INFO_TYPE_INFO
> +Bits 16-31 indicate subtype-dependent information.
> +.SH IOCTL COMMANDS
> +Pipes opened with
> +.B O_NOTIFICATION_PIPE
> +have the following
> +.BR ioctl (2)
> +commands available:
> +.TP
> +.B IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_SIZE
> +The ioctl argument is indicates the maximum number of messages that can be
> +inserted into the pipe.  This must be a power of two.  This command also
> +pre-allocates memory to hold messages.
> +.IP
> +This may only be done once and the queue cannot be used until this command has
> +been done.
> +.TP
> +.B IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_FILTER
> +This is used to set filters on the notifications that get written into the
> +buffer.  See the section on filtering for details.
> +.SH FILTERING
> +.PP
> +The
> +.B IOC_WATH_QUEUE_SET_FILTER
> +ioctl argument points to a structure of the following form:
> +.PP
> +.in +4n
> +.EX
> +struct watch_notification_filter {
> +	__u32	nr_filters;
> +	__u32	__reserved;
> +	struct watch_notification_type_filter filters[];
> +};
> +.EE
> +.in
> +.PP
> +Where
> +.I nr_filters
> +indicates the number of elements in the
> +.IR filters []
> +array, and
> +.I __reserved
> +should be 0.  Each element in the filters array specifies a filter and is of
> +the following form:
> +.PP
> +.in +4n
> +.EX
> +struct watch_notification_type_filter {
> +	__u32	type;
> +	__u32	info_filter;
> +	__u32	info_mask;
> +	__u32	subtype_filter[8];
> +};
> +.EE
> +.in
> +.PP
> +Where
> +.I type
> +refers to the type field in a notification record header;
> +.IR info_filter " and " info_mask
> +refer to the info field; and
> +.I subtype_filter
> +is a bit-mask of permitted subtypes.
> +.PP
> +A notification matches a filter if all of the following are true:
> +.in +4n
> +.PP
> +(*) The type on the notification matches that on the filter.
> +.PP
> +(*) The bit in subtype_filter that matches the notification subtype is set.
> +Each element in subtype_filter[] covers 32 subtypes, with, for example,
> +element 0 matching subtypes 0-31.  This can be summarised as:
> +.PP
> +.in +4n
> +.EX
> +F->subtype_filter[N->subtype / 32] & (1U << (N->subtype % 32))
> +.EE
> +.in
> +.PP
> +(*) The notification info, masked off, matches the filter info, e.g.:
> +.PP
> +.in +4n
> +.EX
> +(N->info & F->info_mask) == F->info_filter
> +.EE
> +.in
> +.PP
> +If no filters are set, all notifications are allowed by default and if one or
> +more filters are set, notifications are disallowed by default.
> +WATCH_TYPE_META cannot, however, be filtered.
> +.SH VERSIONS
> +The notification queue driver first appeared in v5.8 of the Linux kernel.
> +.SH EXAMPLE
> +To use the notification mechanism, first of all the pipe has to be opened and
> +the size must be set:
> +.PP
> +.in +4n
> +.EX
> +int fds[2];
> +pipe2(fd[0], O_NOTIFICATION_QUEUE);
> +int wfd = fd[0];
> +
> +ioctl(wfd, IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_SIZE, 16);
> +.EE
> +.in
> +.PP
> +From this point, the queue is open for business.  Filters can be set to
> +restrict the notifications that get inserted into the queue from the sources
> +that are being watched.  For example:
> +.PP
> +.in +4n
> +.EX
> +static struct watch_notification_filter filter = {
> +	.nr_filters	= 1,
> +	.__reserved	= 0,
> +	.filters = {
> +		[0]	= {
> +			.type			= WATCH_TYPE_KEY_NOTIFY,
> +			.subtype_filter[0]	= 1 << NOTIFY_KEY_LINKED,
> +			.info_filter		= 1 << WATCH_INFO_FLAG_2,
> +			.info_mask		= 1 << WATCH_INFO_FLAG_2,
> +		},
> +	},
> +};

> +ioctl(wfd, IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_FILTER, &filter);
> +.EE
> +.in
> +.PP
> +will only allow key-change notifications that indicate a key is linked into a
> +keyring and then only if type-specific flag WATCH_INFO_FLAG_2 is set on the
> +notification.
> +.PP
> +Sources can then be watched, for example:
> +.PP
> +.in +4n
> +.EX
> +keyctl_watch_key(KEY_SPEC_SESSION_KEYRING, wfd, 0x33);
> +.EE
> +.in
> +.PP
> +The first places a watch on the process's session keyring, directing the
> +notifications to the buffer we just created and specifying that they should be
> +tagged with 0x33 in the info ID field.
> +.PP
> +When it is determined that there is something in the buffer, messages can be
> +read out of the ring with something like the following:
> +.PP
> +.in +4n
> +.EX
> +for (;;) {
> +	unsigned char buf[WATCH_INFO_LENGTH];
> +	read(fd, buf, sizeof(buf));
> +	struct watch_notification *n = (struct watch_notification *)buf;
> +	switch (n->type) {
> +	case WATCH_TYPE_META:
> +		switch (n->subtype) {
> +		case WATCH_META_REMOVAL_NOTIFICATION:
> +			saw_removal_notification(n);
> +			break;
> +		case WATCH_META_LOSS_NOTIFICATION:
> +			printf("-- LOSS --\n");
> +			break;
> +		}
> +		break;
> +	case WATCH_TYPE_KEY_NOTIFY:
> +		saw_key_change(n);
> +		break;
> +	}
> +}

> +.EE
> +.in
> +.PP
> +

Remove preceding two lines.

> +.SH SEE ALSO
> +.ad l
> +.nh
> +.BR keyctl (1),
> +.BR ioctl (2),
> +.BR pipe2 (2),
> +.BR read (2),
> +.BR keyctl_watch_key (3)

Thanks,

Michael


-- 
Michael Kerrisk
Linux man-pages maintainer; http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/
Linux/UNIX System Programming Training: http://man7.org/training/

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 1/2] Add a manpage for watch_queue(7)
  2020-08-24 15:27 ` David Howells
  2020-08-24 16:58   ` Ben Boeckel
@ 2020-08-24 17:54   ` David Howells
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 8+ messages in thread
From: David Howells @ 2020-08-24 17:54 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: me
  Cc: dhowells, mtk.manpages, torvalds, keyrings, linux-fsdevel,
	linux-man, linux-api, linux-kernel

Ben Boeckel <me@benboeckel.net> wrote:

> > One loss message.  I set a flag on the last slot in the pipe ring to say that
> > message loss occurred, but there's insufficient space to store a counter
> > without making the slot larger (and I really don't want to do that).
> > 
> > Note that every slot in the pipe ring has such a flag, so you could,
> > theoretically, get a loss message after every normal message that you read
> > out.
> 
> Ah, so a "you lost something" is just a flag on the next event that does
> make it into the queue? I read it as a whole message existed indicating
> that data was lost. Not sure of the best wording here.

No.  That flag is internal.  It causes read() to fabricate a message and
insert it into the user buffer after the flagged message has been copied over.

> > bit 0 is 2^0 in this case.  I'm not sure how better to describe it.
> 
> OK, so the bits are in native-endian order in the enclosing bytes. But C
> just doesn't have a set ABI for bitfields (AFAIK), so I guess it's
> "whatever GCC does" in practice?

Hard to say - powerpc and s390 have bit 0 as the MSB:-/

But "& (1 << 0)" gets you 2^0, whatever the CPU book says.

David


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 1/2] Add a manpage for watch_queue(7)
  2020-08-24 15:27 ` David Howells
@ 2020-08-24 16:58   ` Ben Boeckel
  2020-08-24 17:54   ` David Howells
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 8+ messages in thread
From: Ben Boeckel @ 2020-08-24 16:58 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: David Howells
  Cc: mtk.manpages, torvalds, keyrings, linux-fsdevel, linux-man,
	linux-api, linux-kernel

On Mon, Aug 24, 2020 at 16:27:32 +0100, David Howells wrote:
> Ben Boeckel <me@benboeckel.net> wrote:
> 
> > > +In the case of message loss,
> > > +.BR read (2)
> > > +will fabricate a loss message and pass that to userspace immediately after the
> > > +point at which the loss occurred.
> > 
> > If multiple messages are dropped in a row, is there one loss message per
> > loss message or per loss event?
> 
> One loss message.  I set a flag on the last slot in the pipe ring to say that
> message loss occurred, but there's insufficient space to store a counter
> without making the slot larger (and I really don't want to do that).
> 
> Note that every slot in the pipe ring has such a flag, so you could,
> theoretically, get a loss message after every normal message that you read
> out.

Ah, so a "you lost something" is just a flag on the next event that does
make it into the queue? I read it as a whole message existed indicating
that data was lost. Not sure of the best wording here.

> > > +A notification pipe allocates a certain amount of locked kernel memory (so that
> > > +the kernel can write a notification into it from contexts where allocation is
> > > +restricted), and so is subject to pipe resource limit restrictions.
> > 
> > A reference to the relevant manpage for resource limitations would be
> > nice here. I'd assume `setrlimit(2)`, but I don't see anything
> > pipe-specific there.
> 
> I can change that to:
> 
> 	... and so is subject to pipe resource limit restrictions - see
> 	.BR pipe (7),
> 	in the section on
> 	.BR "/proc files" .

+1

> > > +of interest to the watcher, a filter can be set on a queue to determine whether
> > 
> > "a filter can be set"? If multiple filters are allowed, "filters can be
> > added" might work better here to indicate that multiple filters are
> > allowed. Otherwise, "a single filter" would make it clearer that only
> > one is supported.
> 
> How about:
> 
> 	Because a source can produce a lot of different events, not all of
> 	which may be of interest to the watcher, a single set of filters can
> 	be set on a queue to determine whether a particular event will get
> 	inserted in a queue at the point of posting inside the kernel.

+1

> > Are there macros for extracting these fields available?
> 
> WATCH_INFO_LENGTH, WATCH_INFO_ID and WATCH_INFO_TYPE_INFO are masks.  There
> are also shift macros (you add __SHIFT to the mask macro name).  I'm not sure
> how best to do this in troff.

I think some mention that these things exist is fine. The `__SHIFT` ones
seem like more of an implementation details and can be left out here I
think.

> > Why not also have bitfields for these?
> 
> It makes it a lot simpler to filter.

I guess. In C sure, but it's not the only language that talks to the
kernel these days (Go and Rust being the main ones). Not that I expect
Go to really bind this syscall anytime soon, but who knows.

> > Or is there some ABI issues with
> > non-power-of-2 bitfield sizes? For clarity, which bit is bit 0? Low address
> > or LSB? Is this documented in some other manpage?
> 
> bit 0 is 2^0 in this case.  I'm not sure how better to describe it.

OK, so the bits are in native-endian order in the enclosing bytes. But C
just doesn't have a set ABI for bitfields (AFAIK), so I guess it's
"whatever GCC does" in practice?

> > Also, bit 7 is unused (for alignment I assume)? Is it always 0, 1, or
> > indeterminate?
> 
> It's reserved and should always be 0 - but that's solely at the kernel's
> discretion (ie. userspace doesn't gets to set it).

Makes sense.

> > > +This is used to set filters on the notifications that get written into the
> > 
> > "set" -> "add"? If I call this multiple times, is only the last call
> > effective or do I need to keep a list of all filters myself so I can
> > append in the future (since I see no analogous GET_FILTER call)?
> 
> "Set".  You cannot add filters, you can only set/replace/remove the whole set.
> 
> Also, I didn't provide a GET_FILTER, assuming that you could probably keep
> track of them yourself.

The process itself could, but criu basically gets a snapshot of the
process and has to be able to gather enough information to reconstruct
it.

> > Does this have implications for criu restoring a process?
> 
> Maybe?

It's probably worth asking the criu developers about it.

> > > +	unsigned char buf[128];
> > 
> > Is 128 the maximum message size?
> 
> 127 actually.  This is specified earlier in the manual page.

Ah, I see it now. I think I had forgotten by the time I got here.

> > Do we have a macro for this? If it isn't, shouldn't there be code for
> > detecting ENOBUFS and using a bigger buffer? Or at least not rolling with a
> > busted buffer.
> 
> WATCH_INFO_LENGTH can be used for this.  I'll make the example say:
> 
> 	unsigned char buf[WATCH_INFO_LENGTH];

+1

And that makes the ENOBUFS not a possible thing here, so that's fine.

> > > +	case WATCH_TYPE_META:
> > 
> > From above, if a filter is added, all messages not matching a filter are
> > dropped. Are WATCH_TYPE_META messages special in this case?
> 
> Yes.  They only do two things at the moment: Tell you that something you were
> watching went away and tell you that messages were lost.  I've amended the
> filter section to note that this cannot be filtered.

Thanks.

> > The Rust developer in me wants to see:
> 
> I don't touch Rust ;-)
> 
> > 	default:
> > 		/* Subtypes may be added in future kernel versions. */
> > 		printf("unrecognized meta subtype: %d\n", n->subtype);
> > 		break;
> > 
> > unless we're guaranteeing that no other subtypes exist for this type
> > (updating the docs with new types doesn't help those who copy/paste from
> > here as a seed).
> 
> I'm trying to keep the example small.  It's pseudo-code rather than real code.
> I *could* expand it to a fully working program, but that would make it a lot
> bigger and harder to read.  As you pointed out, I haven't bothered with the
> error checking, for example.

With ENOBUFS not being possible with the messages having a max size, I
think the glaring error about that case is OK to gloss over. I'm fine
with eliding over common error cases one might want to investigate more
(e.g., ENOSYS, EINVAL, etc.) is fine, but bigger things like not having
a big enough buffer would have at least warranted a comment (IMO).

Thanks,

--Ben

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 1/2] Add a manpage for watch_queue(7)
  2020-08-07 15:06 David Howells
  2020-08-07 16:05 ` Ben Boeckel
@ 2020-08-24 15:27 ` David Howells
  2020-08-24 16:58   ` Ben Boeckel
  2020-08-24 17:54   ` David Howells
  1 sibling, 2 replies; 8+ messages in thread
From: David Howells @ 2020-08-24 15:27 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: me
  Cc: dhowells, mtk.manpages, torvalds, keyrings, linux-fsdevel,
	linux-man, linux-api, linux-kernel

Ben Boeckel <me@benboeckel.net> wrote:

> > +In the case of message loss,
> > +.BR read (2)
> > +will fabricate a loss message and pass that to userspace immediately after the
> > +point at which the loss occurred.
> 
> If multiple messages are dropped in a row, is there one loss message per
> loss message or per loss event?

One loss message.  I set a flag on the last slot in the pipe ring to say that
message loss occurred, but there's insufficient space to store a counter
without making the slot larger (and I really don't want to do that).

Note that every slot in the pipe ring has such a flag, so you could,
theoretically, get a loss message after every normal message that you read
out.

> > +A notification pipe allocates a certain amount of locked kernel memory (so that
> > +the kernel can write a notification into it from contexts where allocation is
> > +restricted), and so is subject to pipe resource limit restrictions.
> 
> A reference to the relevant manpage for resource limitations would be
> nice here. I'd assume `setrlimit(2)`, but I don't see anything
> pipe-specific there.

I can change that to:

	... and so is subject to pipe resource limit restrictions - see
	.BR pipe (7),
	in the section on
	.BR "/proc files" .

> > +of interest to the watcher, a filter can be set on a queue to determine whether
> 
> "a filter can be set"? If multiple filters are allowed, "filters can be
> added" might work better here to indicate that multiple filters are
> allowed. Otherwise, "a single filter" would make it clearer that only
> one is supported.

How about:

	Because a source can produce a lot of different events, not all of
	which may be of interest to the watcher, a single set of filters can
	be set on a queue to determine whether a particular event will get
	inserted in a queue at the point of posting inside the kernel.

> Are there macros for extracting these fields available?

WATCH_INFO_LENGTH, WATCH_INFO_ID and WATCH_INFO_TYPE_INFO are masks.  There
are also shift macros (you add __SHIFT to the mask macro name).  I'm not sure
how best to do this in troff.

> Why not also have bitfields for these?

It makes it a lot simpler to filter.

> Or is there some ABI issues with
> non-power-of-2 bitfield sizes? For clarity, which bit is bit 0? Low address
> or LSB? Is this documented in some other manpage?

bit 0 is 2^0 in this case.  I'm not sure how better to describe it.

> Also, bit 7 is unused (for alignment I assume)? Is it always 0, 1, or
> indeterminate?

It's reserved and should always be 0 - but that's solely at the kernel's
discretion (ie. userspace doesn't gets to set it).

> > +This is used to set filters on the notifications that get written into the
> 
> "set" -> "add"? If I call this multiple times, is only the last call
> effective or do I need to keep a list of all filters myself so I can
> append in the future (since I see no analogous GET_FILTER call)?

"Set".  You cannot add filters, you can only set/replace/remove the whole set.

Also, I didn't provide a GET_FILTER, assuming that you could probably keep
track of them yourself.

> Does this have implications for criu restoring a process?

Maybe?

> > +	unsigned char buf[128];
> 
> Is 128 the maximum message size?

127 actually.  This is specified earlier in the manual page.

> Do we have a macro for this? If it isn't, shouldn't there be code for
> detecting ENOBUFS and using a bigger buffer? Or at least not rolling with a
> busted buffer.

WATCH_INFO_LENGTH can be used for this.  I'll make the example say:

	unsigned char buf[WATCH_INFO_LENGTH];

> > +	case WATCH_TYPE_META:
> 
> From above, if a filter is added, all messages not matching a filter are
> dropped. Are WATCH_TYPE_META messages special in this case?

Yes.  They only do two things at the moment: Tell you that something you were
watching went away and tell you that messages were lost.  I've amended the
filter section to note that this cannot be filtered.

> The Rust developer in me wants to see:

I don't touch Rust ;-)

> 	default:
> 		/* Subtypes may be added in future kernel versions. */
> 		printf("unrecognized meta subtype: %d\n", n->subtype);
> 		break;
> 
> unless we're guaranteeing that no other subtypes exist for this type
> (updating the docs with new types doesn't help those who copy/paste from
> here as a seed).

I'm trying to keep the example small.  It's pseudo-code rather than real code.
I *could* expand it to a fully working program, but that would make it a lot
bigger and harder to read.  As you pointed out, I haven't bothered with the
error checking, for example.

David


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 1/2] Add a manpage for watch_queue(7)
  2020-08-07 15:06 David Howells
@ 2020-08-07 16:05 ` Ben Boeckel
  2020-08-24 15:27 ` David Howells
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 8+ messages in thread
From: Ben Boeckel @ 2020-08-07 16:05 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: David Howells
  Cc: mtk.manpages, torvalds, keyrings, linux-fsdevel, linux-man,
	linux-api, linux-kernel

On Fri, Aug 07, 2020 at 16:06:16 +0100, David Howells wrote:
> Add a manual page for the notifications/watch_queue facility.
> 
> Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
> ---
> 
>  man7/watch_queue.7 |  285 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  1 file changed, 285 insertions(+)
>  create mode 100644 man7/watch_queue.7
> 
> diff --git a/man7/watch_queue.7 b/man7/watch_queue.7
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000..6b22ad689
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/man7/watch_queue.7
> @@ -0,0 +1,285 @@
> +.\"
> +.\" Copyright (C) 2020 Red Hat, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
> +.\" Written by David Howells (dhowells@redhat.com)
> +.\"
> +.\" This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
> +.\" modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public Licence
> +.\" as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version
> +.\" 2 of the Licence, or (at your option) any later version.
> +.\"
> +.TH WATCH_QUEUE 7 "2020-08-07" Linux "General Kernel Notifications"
> +.\"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
> +.SH NAME
> +General kernel notification queue
> +.\"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
> +.SH SYNOPSIS
> +#include <linux/watch_queue.h>
> +.EX
> +
> +pipe2(fds, O_NOTIFICATION_PIPE);
> +ioctl(fds[0], IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_SIZE, max_message_count);
> +ioctl(fds[0], IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_FILTER, &filter);
> +keyctl_watch_key(KEY_SPEC_SESSION_KEYRING, fds[0], 0x01);

What is this `0x01` magic number?

(Later, from below: It's a tag to add to messages. A variable with a
name to that effect is probably warranted in the "hello world" example
this early in the doc.)

> +for (;;) {
> +	buf_len = read(fds[0], buffer, sizeof(buffer));
> +	...
> +}
> +.EE
> +.SH OVERVIEW
> +.PP
> +The general kernel notification queue is a general purpose transport for kernel
> +notification messages to userspace.  Notification messages are marked with type
> +information so that events from multiple sources can be distinguished.
> +Messages are also of variable length to accommodate different information for
> +each type.
> +.PP
> +Queues are implemented on top of standard pipes and multiple independent queues
> +can be created.  After a pipe has been created, its size and filtering can be
> +configured and event sources attached.  The pipe can then be read or polled to
> +wait for messages.
> +.PP
> +Multiple messages may be read out of the queue at a time if the buffer is large
> +enough, but messages will not get split amongst multiple reads.  If the buffer
> +isn't large enough for a message,
> +.B ENOBUFS
> +will be returned.
> +.PP
> +In the case of message loss,
> +.BR read (2)
> +will fabricate a loss message and pass that to userspace immediately after the
> +point at which the loss occurred.

If multiple messages are dropped in a row, is there one loss message per
loss message or per loss event?

> +A notification pipe allocates a certain amount of locked kernel memory (so that
> +the kernel can write a notification into it from contexts where allocation is
> +restricted), and so is subject to pipe resource limit restrictions.

A reference to the relevant manpage for resource limitations would be
nice here. I'd assume `setrlimit(2)`, but I don't see anything
pipe-specific there.

> +Sources must be attached to a queue manually; there's no single global event
> +source, but rather a variety of sources, each of which can be attached to by
> +multiple queues.  Attachments can be set up by:
> +.TP
> +.BR keyctl_watch_key (3)
> +Monitor a key or keyring for changes.
> +.PP
> +Because a source can produce a lot of different events, not all of which may be

"many events" or "many types of events"?

> +of interest to the watcher, a filter can be set on a queue to determine whether

"a filter can be set"? If multiple filters are allowed, "filters can be
added" might work better here to indicate that multiple filters are
allowed. Otherwise, "a single filter" would make it clearer that only
one is supported.

> +a particular event will get inserted in a queue at the point of posting inside
> +the kernel.
> +
> +.\"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
> +.SH MESSAGE STRUCTURE
> +.PP
> +The output from reading the pipe is divided into variable length messages.
> +Read will never split a message across two separate read calls.  Each message

"read(2) will never split" perhaps?

> +begins with a header of the form:
> +.PP
> +.in +4n
> +.EX
> +struct watch_notification {
> +	__u32	type:24;
> +	__u32	subtype:8;
> +	__u32	info;
> +};
> +.EE
> +.in
> +.PP
> +Where
> +.I type
> +indicates the general class of notification,
> +.I subtype
> +indicates the specific type of notification within that class and
> +.I info
> +includes the message length (in bytes), the watcher's ID and some type-specific
> +information.
> +.PP
> +A special message type,
> +.BR WATCH_TYPE_META ,
> +exists to convey information about the notification facility itself.  It has a
> +number of subtypes:

"a number of" seems extraneous. How about just "It has the following
subtypes"?

> +.TP
> +.B WATCH_META_LOSS_NOTIFICATION
> +This indicates one or more messages were lost, probably due to a buffer
> +overrun.
> +.TP
> +.B WATCH_META_REMOVAL_NOTIFICATION
> +This indicates that a notification source went away whilst it is being watched.
> +This comes in two lengths: a short variant that carries just the header and a
> +long variant that includes a 64-bit identifier as well that identifies the
> +source more precisely (which variant is used and how the identifier should be
> +interpreted is source dependent).
> +.PP
> +.I info
> +includes the following fields:
> +.TP
> +.B WATCH_INFO_LENGTH
> +Bits 0-6 indicate the size of the message in bytes, and can be between 8 and
> +127.
> +.TP
> +.B WATCH_INFO_ID
> +Bits 8-15 indicate the tag given to the source binding call.  This is a number
> +between 0 and 255 and is purely a source index for userspace's use and isn't
> +interpreted by the kernel.
> +.TP
> +.B WATCH_INFO_TYPE_INFO
> +Bits 16-31 indicate subtype-dependent information.

Are there macros for extracting these fields available? Why not also
have bitfields for these? Or is there some ABI issues with
non-power-of-2 bitfield sizes? For clarity, which bit is bit 0? Low
address or LSB? Is this documented in some other manpage?

Also, bit 7 is unused (for alignment I assume)? Is it always 0, 1, or
indeterminate?

> +.\"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
> +.SH IOCTL COMMANDS
> +Pipes opened O_NOTIFICATION_PIPE have the following

"Pipes opened with". It should probably also be ".B O_NOTIFICATION_PIPE"
for markup purposes.

> +.IR ioctl ()
> +commands available:
> +.TP
> +.B IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_SIZE
> +The ioctl argument is indicates the maximum number of messages that can be
> +inserted into the pipe.  This must be a power of two.  This command also
> +pre-allocates memory to hold messages.
> +.IP
> +This may only be done once and the queue cannot be used until this command has
> +been done.
> +.TP
> +.B IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_FILTER
> +This is used to set filters on the notifications that get written into the

"set" -> "add"? If I call this multiple times, is only the last call
effective or do I need to keep a list of all filters myself so I can
append in the future (since I see no analogous GET_FILTER call)? Does
this have implications for criu restoring a process?

> +buffer.  The ioctl argument points to a structure of the following form:
> +.IP
> +.in +4n
> +.EX
> +struct watch_notification_filter {
> +	__u32	nr_filters;
> +	__u32	__reserved;
> +	struct watch_notification_type_filter filters[];
> +};
> +.EE
> +.in
> +.IP
> +Where
> +.I nr_filters
> +indicates the number of elements in the
> +.IR filters []
> +array.  Each element in the filters array specifies a filter and is of the
> +following form:

I assume `__reserved` must be 0 until it has meaning? Is that checked
kernel-side?

> +.IP
> +.in +4n
> +.EX
> +struct watch_notification_type_filter {
> +	__u32	type;
> +	__u32	info_filter;
> +	__u32	info_mask;
> +	__u32	subtype_filter[8];
> +};
> +.EE
> +.in
> +.IP
> +Where
> +.I type
> +refer to the type field in a notification record header, info_filter and

"refers"

> +info_mask refer to the info field and subtype_filter is a bit-mask of subtypes.

Adding the Oxford comma here would be nicer due to the one entry using
`and` itself, but I don't know the editorial rules on that in the docs.

> +.IP
> +If no filters are installed, all notifications are allowed by default and if
> +one or more filters are installed, notifications are disallowed by default.

Here, filters on a queue are referred to as being "installed". Some
consistency between "set", "add", and "install" would be appreciated.

> +.IP
> +A notifications matches a filter if, for notification N and filter F:
> +.IP
> +.in +4n
> +.EX
> +N->type == F->type &&
> +(F->subtype_filter[N->subtype >> 5] &
> +	(1U << (N->subtype & 31))) &&
> +(N->info & F->info_mask) == F->info_filter)
> +.EE
> +.in
> +.IP

The bitshifting here is a bit out-of-the-blue. There's obviously some
structure to subtypes, but it is only mentioned tangentially in this
algorithm. Is it worth mentioning somewhere? Given a list of subtypes I
want to match, how do I make a filter since they're supposed to be
opaque (modulo ABI stability)? This information belongs with each
message type's documentation or there needs to be some way to extract it
from any given set of message subtypes.

> +.\"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
> +.SH EXAMPLE
> +To use the notification mechanism, first of all the pipe has to be opened and
> +the size must be set:
> +.PP
> +.in +4n
> +.EX
> +int fds[2];
> +pipe2(fd[0], O_NOTIFICATION_QUEUE);
> +int wfd = fd[0];
> +
> +ioctl(wfd, IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_SIZE, 16);
> +.EE
> +.in
> +.PP
> +From this point, the queue is open for business.

"open for business" seems awfully casual compare to the rest of the
text. Idioms are probably not best in technical docs anyways
(translation and such). How about "From this point on, the kernel can
place events into the queue."?

Is there any benefit/error case for adding event sources and then
setting the buffer size? Perhaps one might want all event sources to
start delivering together rather than the buffer filling up while adding
all of the sources?

>                                                    Filters can be set to

Another set/add/install uniformity location.

> +restrict the notifications that get inserted into the buffer from the sources

"buffer" -> "queue"?

> +that are being watched.  For example:
> +.PP
> +.in +4n
> +.EX
> +static struct watch_notification_filter filter = {
> +	.nr_filters	= 1,
> +	.__reserved	= 0,
> +	.filters = {
> +		[0]	= {
> +			.type			= WATCH_TYPE_KEY_NOTIFY,
> +			.subtype_filter[0]	= 1 << NOTIFY_KEY_LINKED,
> +			.info_filter		= 1 << WATCH_INFO_FLAG_2,
> +			.info_mask		= 1 << WATCH_INFO_FLAG_2,

OK, so the example helps with the filter and mask, but then each event
type probably needs to document which watch info flags each subtype
cares about or what it means.

Where are the docs for all of the available `WATCH_INFO_FLAG` macros?

> +		},
> +	},
> +};
> +
> +ioctl(wfd, IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_FILTER, &filter);
> +.EE
> +.in
> +.PP
> +will only allow key-change notifications that indicate a key is linked into a
> +keyring and then only if type-specific flag WATCH_INFO_FLAG_2 is set on the
> +notification.
> +.PP
> +Sources can then be watched, for example:
> +.PP
> +.in +4n
> +.EX
> +keyctl_watch_key(KEY_SPEC_SESSION_KEYRING, wfd, 0x33);
> +.EE
> +.in
> +.PP
> +The first places a watch on the process's session keyring, directing the
> +notifications to the buffer we just created and specifying that they should be
> +tagged with 0x33 in the info ID field.
> +.PP
> +When it is determined that there is something in the buffer, messages can be
> +read out of the ring with something like the following:
> +.PP
> +.in +4n
> +.EX
> +for (;;) {
> +	unsigned char buf[128];

Is 128 the maximum message size? Do we have a macro for this? If it
isn't, shouldn't there be code for detecting ENOBUFS and using a bigger
buffer? Or at least not rolling with a busted buffer.

> +	int ret = read(fd, buf, sizeof(buf));

	/* Check if the buffer was too small for a message. */
	if (ret < 0 && errno == ENOBUFS)
		continue;

Though this seems like an infinite loop now since that too-large message
will just clog the queue...

Perfect error handling isn't necessary in example code like this, but
could we at least stick traffic cones in the potholes?

> +	struct watch_notification *n = (struct watch_notification *)buf;
> +	switch (n->type) {
> +	case WATCH_TYPE_META:

From above, if a filter is added, all messages not matching a filter are
dropped. Are WATCH_TYPE_META messages special in this case? If so, could
it be mentioned somewhere that they do not observe filters (I'm partial
to both the message type and filter docs since one might come to the
docs for either reason individually, but at least one should mention
it)? If they do observe filters, isn't this case block dead code?

> +		switch (n->subtype) {
> +		case WATCH_META_REMOVAL_NOTIFICATION:
> +			saw_removal_notification(n);
> +			break;
> +		case WATCH_META_LOSS_NOTIFICATION:
> +			printf("-- LOSS --\n");
> +			break;

The Rust developer in me wants to see:

	default:
		/* Subtypes may be added in future kernel versions. */
		printf("unrecognized meta subtype: %d\n", n->subtype);
		break;

unless we're guaranteeing that no other subtypes exist for this type
(updating the docs with new types doesn't help those who copy/paste from
here as a seed).

> +		}
> +		break;
> +	case WATCH_TYPE_KEY_NOTIFY:
> +		saw_key_change(n);
> +		break;
> +	}
> +}
> +.EE
> +.in
> +.PP
> +
> +.\"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
> +.SH VERSIONS
> +The notification queue driver first appeared in v5.8 of the Linux kernel.

Other manpages seem to have this above examples. This is fine too, but
just double checking to see if there are conventions about section
ordering.

> +.SH SEE ALSO
> +.ad l
> +.nh
> +.BR keyctl (1),
> +.BR ioctl (2),
> +.BR pipe2 (2),
> +.BR read (2),
> +.BR keyctl_watch_key (3)

Thanks,

--Ben

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 1/2] Add a manpage for watch_queue(7)
@ 2020-08-07 15:06 David Howells
  2020-08-07 16:05 ` Ben Boeckel
  2020-08-24 15:27 ` David Howells
  0 siblings, 2 replies; 8+ messages in thread
From: David Howells @ 2020-08-07 15:06 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: mtk.manpages
  Cc: torvalds, dhowells, keyrings, linux-fsdevel, linux-man,
	linux-api, linux-kernel

Add a manual page for the notifications/watch_queue facility.

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
---

 man7/watch_queue.7 |  285 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 1 file changed, 285 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 man7/watch_queue.7

diff --git a/man7/watch_queue.7 b/man7/watch_queue.7
new file mode 100644
index 000000000..6b22ad689
--- /dev/null
+++ b/man7/watch_queue.7
@@ -0,0 +1,285 @@
+.\"
+.\" Copyright (C) 2020 Red Hat, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
+.\" Written by David Howells (dhowells@redhat.com)
+.\"
+.\" This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
+.\" modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public Licence
+.\" as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version
+.\" 2 of the Licence, or (at your option) any later version.
+.\"
+.TH WATCH_QUEUE 7 "2020-08-07" Linux "General Kernel Notifications"
+.\"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
+.SH NAME
+General kernel notification queue
+.\"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
+.SH SYNOPSIS
+#include <linux/watch_queue.h>
+.EX
+
+pipe2(fds, O_NOTIFICATION_PIPE);
+ioctl(fds[0], IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_SIZE, max_message_count);
+ioctl(fds[0], IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_FILTER, &filter);
+keyctl_watch_key(KEY_SPEC_SESSION_KEYRING, fds[0], 0x01);
+for (;;) {
+	buf_len = read(fds[0], buffer, sizeof(buffer));
+	...
+}
+.EE
+.SH OVERVIEW
+.PP
+The general kernel notification queue is a general purpose transport for kernel
+notification messages to userspace.  Notification messages are marked with type
+information so that events from multiple sources can be distinguished.
+Messages are also of variable length to accommodate different information for
+each type.
+.PP
+Queues are implemented on top of standard pipes and multiple independent queues
+can be created.  After a pipe has been created, its size and filtering can be
+configured and event sources attached.  The pipe can then be read or polled to
+wait for messages.
+.PP
+Multiple messages may be read out of the queue at a time if the buffer is large
+enough, but messages will not get split amongst multiple reads.  If the buffer
+isn't large enough for a message,
+.B ENOBUFS
+will be returned.
+.PP
+In the case of message loss,
+.BR read (2)
+will fabricate a loss message and pass that to userspace immediately after the
+point at which the loss occurred.
+.PP
+A notification pipe allocates a certain amount of locked kernel memory (so that
+the kernel can write a notification into it from contexts where allocation is
+restricted), and so is subject to pipe resource limit restrictions.
+.PP
+Sources must be attached to a queue manually; there's no single global event
+source, but rather a variety of sources, each of which can be attached to by
+multiple queues.  Attachments can be set up by:
+.TP
+.BR keyctl_watch_key (3)
+Monitor a key or keyring for changes.
+.PP
+Because a source can produce a lot of different events, not all of which may be
+of interest to the watcher, a filter can be set on a queue to determine whether
+a particular event will get inserted in a queue at the point of posting inside
+the kernel.
+
+.\"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
+.SH MESSAGE STRUCTURE
+.PP
+The output from reading the pipe is divided into variable length messages.
+Read will never split a message across two separate read calls.  Each message
+begins with a header of the form:
+.PP
+.in +4n
+.EX
+struct watch_notification {
+	__u32	type:24;
+	__u32	subtype:8;
+	__u32	info;
+};
+.EE
+.in
+.PP
+Where
+.I type
+indicates the general class of notification,
+.I subtype
+indicates the specific type of notification within that class and
+.I info
+includes the message length (in bytes), the watcher's ID and some type-specific
+information.
+.PP
+A special message type,
+.BR WATCH_TYPE_META ,
+exists to convey information about the notification facility itself.  It has a
+number of subtypes:
+.TP
+.B WATCH_META_LOSS_NOTIFICATION
+This indicates one or more messages were lost, probably due to a buffer
+overrun.
+.TP
+.B WATCH_META_REMOVAL_NOTIFICATION
+This indicates that a notification source went away whilst it is being watched.
+This comes in two lengths: a short variant that carries just the header and a
+long variant that includes a 64-bit identifier as well that identifies the
+source more precisely (which variant is used and how the identifier should be
+interpreted is source dependent).
+.PP
+.I info
+includes the following fields:
+.TP
+.B WATCH_INFO_LENGTH
+Bits 0-6 indicate the size of the message in bytes, and can be between 8 and
+127.
+.TP
+.B WATCH_INFO_ID
+Bits 8-15 indicate the tag given to the source binding call.  This is a number
+between 0 and 255 and is purely a source index for userspace's use and isn't
+interpreted by the kernel.
+.TP
+.B WATCH_INFO_TYPE_INFO
+Bits 16-31 indicate subtype-dependent information.
+
+.\"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
+.SH IOCTL COMMANDS
+Pipes opened O_NOTIFICATION_PIPE have the following
+.IR ioctl ()
+commands available:
+.TP
+.B IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_SIZE
+The ioctl argument is indicates the maximum number of messages that can be
+inserted into the pipe.  This must be a power of two.  This command also
+pre-allocates memory to hold messages.
+.IP
+This may only be done once and the queue cannot be used until this command has
+been done.
+.TP
+.B IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_FILTER
+This is used to set filters on the notifications that get written into the
+buffer.  The ioctl argument points to a structure of the following form:
+.IP
+.in +4n
+.EX
+struct watch_notification_filter {
+	__u32	nr_filters;
+	__u32	__reserved;
+	struct watch_notification_type_filter filters[];
+};
+.EE
+.in
+.IP
+Where
+.I nr_filters
+indicates the number of elements in the
+.IR filters []
+array.  Each element in the filters array specifies a filter and is of the
+following form:
+.IP
+.in +4n
+.EX
+struct watch_notification_type_filter {
+	__u32	type;
+	__u32	info_filter;
+	__u32	info_mask;
+	__u32	subtype_filter[8];
+};
+.EE
+.in
+.IP
+Where
+.I type
+refer to the type field in a notification record header, info_filter and
+info_mask refer to the info field and subtype_filter is a bit-mask of subtypes.
+.IP
+If no filters are installed, all notifications are allowed by default and if
+one or more filters are installed, notifications are disallowed by default.
+.IP
+A notifications matches a filter if, for notification N and filter F:
+.IP
+.in +4n
+.EX
+N->type == F->type &&
+(F->subtype_filter[N->subtype >> 5] &
+	(1U << (N->subtype & 31))) &&
+(N->info & F->info_mask) == F->info_filter)
+.EE
+.in
+.IP
+
+
+.\"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
+.SH EXAMPLE
+To use the notification mechanism, first of all the pipe has to be opened and
+the size must be set:
+.PP
+.in +4n
+.EX
+int fds[2];
+pipe2(fd[0], O_NOTIFICATION_QUEUE);
+int wfd = fd[0];
+
+ioctl(wfd, IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_SIZE, 16);
+.EE
+.in
+.PP
+From this point, the queue is open for business.  Filters can be set to
+restrict the notifications that get inserted into the buffer from the sources
+that are being watched.  For example:
+.PP
+.in +4n
+.EX
+static struct watch_notification_filter filter = {
+	.nr_filters	= 1,
+	.__reserved	= 0,
+	.filters = {
+		[0]	= {
+			.type			= WATCH_TYPE_KEY_NOTIFY,
+			.subtype_filter[0]	= 1 << NOTIFY_KEY_LINKED,
+			.info_filter		= 1 << WATCH_INFO_FLAG_2,
+			.info_mask		= 1 << WATCH_INFO_FLAG_2,
+		},
+	},
+};
+
+ioctl(wfd, IOC_WATCH_QUEUE_SET_FILTER, &filter);
+.EE
+.in
+.PP
+will only allow key-change notifications that indicate a key is linked into a
+keyring and then only if type-specific flag WATCH_INFO_FLAG_2 is set on the
+notification.
+.PP
+Sources can then be watched, for example:
+.PP
+.in +4n
+.EX
+keyctl_watch_key(KEY_SPEC_SESSION_KEYRING, wfd, 0x33);
+.EE
+.in
+.PP
+The first places a watch on the process's session keyring, directing the
+notifications to the buffer we just created and specifying that they should be
+tagged with 0x33 in the info ID field.
+.PP
+When it is determined that there is something in the buffer, messages can be
+read out of the ring with something like the following:
+.PP
+.in +4n
+.EX
+for (;;) {
+	unsigned char buf[128];
+	read(fd, buf, sizeof(buf));
+	struct watch_notification *n = (struct watch_notification *)buf;
+	switch (n->type) {
+	case WATCH_TYPE_META:
+		switch (n->subtype) {
+		case WATCH_META_REMOVAL_NOTIFICATION:
+			saw_removal_notification(n);
+			break;
+		case WATCH_META_LOSS_NOTIFICATION:
+			printf("-- LOSS --\n");
+			break;
+		}
+		break;
+	case WATCH_TYPE_KEY_NOTIFY:
+		saw_key_change(n);
+		break;
+	}
+}
+.EE
+.in
+.PP
+
+.\"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
+.SH VERSIONS
+The notification queue driver first appeared in v5.8 of the Linux kernel.
+.SH SEE ALSO
+.ad l
+.nh
+.BR keyctl (1),
+.BR ioctl (2),
+.BR pipe2 (2),
+.BR read (2),
+.BR keyctl_watch_key (3)



^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

end of thread, other threads:[~2020-08-27 11:58 UTC | newest]

Thread overview: 8+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2020-08-24 15:30 [PATCH 1/2] Add a manpage for watch_queue(7) David Howells
2020-08-24 15:30 ` [PATCH 2/2] Modify the pipe(2) manpage for notification queues David Howells
2020-08-27 11:54 ` [PATCH 1/2] Add a manpage for watch_queue(7) Michael Kerrisk (man-pages)
  -- strict thread matches above, loose matches on Subject: below --
2020-08-07 15:06 David Howells
2020-08-07 16:05 ` Ben Boeckel
2020-08-24 15:27 ` David Howells
2020-08-24 16:58   ` Ben Boeckel
2020-08-24 17:54   ` David Howells

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