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From: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>
To: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org, linux-mm@kvack.org
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>, Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Subject: [PATCH] mm: remove global locks from mm/highmem.c
Date: Sun, 28 Jan 2007 15:11:34 +0100	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <1169993494.10987.23.camel@lappy> (raw)

Eradicate global locks.

 - kmap_lock is removed by extensive use of atomic_t, a new flush
   scheme and modifying set_page_address to only allow NULL<->virt
   transitions.

A count of 0 is an exclusive state acting as an entry lock. This is done
using inc_not_zero and cmpxchg. The restriction on changing the virtual
address closes the gap with concurrent additions of the same entry.

 - pool_lock is removed by using the pkmap index for the
   page_address_maps.

By using the pkmap index for the hash entries it is no longer needed to
keep a free list.

This patch has been in -rt for a while but should also help regular
highmem machines with multiple cores/cpus.

Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>
---
 include/linux/mm.h |   32 ++-
 mm/highmem.c       |  433 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-----------------------
 2 files changed, 276 insertions(+), 189 deletions(-)

Index: linux/include/linux/mm.h
===================================================================
--- linux.orig/include/linux/mm.h
+++ linux/include/linux/mm.h
@@ -543,23 +543,39 @@ static __always_inline void *lowmem_page
 #endif
 
 #if defined(WANT_PAGE_VIRTUAL)
-#define page_address(page) ((page)->virtual)
-#define set_page_address(page, address)			\
-	do {						\
-		(page)->virtual = (address);		\
-	} while(0)
-#define page_address_init()  do { } while(0)
+/*
+ * wrap page->virtual so it is safe to set/read locklessly
+ */
+#define page_address(page) \
+	({ typeof((page)->virtual) v = (page)->virtual; \
+	 smp_read_barrier_depends(); \
+	 v; })
+
+static inline int set_page_address(struct page *page, void *address)
+{
+	if (address)
+		return cmpxchg(&page->virtual, NULL, address) == NULL;
+	else {
+		/*
+		 * cmpxchg is a bit abused because it is not guaranteed
+		 * safe wrt direct assignment on all platforms.
+		 */
+		void *virt = page->virtual;
+		return cmpxchg(&page->vitrual, virt, NULL) == virt;
+	}
+}
+void page_address_init(void);
 #endif
 
 #if defined(HASHED_PAGE_VIRTUAL)
 void *page_address(struct page *page);
-void set_page_address(struct page *page, void *virtual);
+int set_page_address(struct page *page, void *virtual);
 void page_address_init(void);
 #endif
 
 #if !defined(HASHED_PAGE_VIRTUAL) && !defined(WANT_PAGE_VIRTUAL)
 #define page_address(page) lowmem_page_address(page)
-#define set_page_address(page, address)  do { } while(0)
+#define set_page_address(page, address)  (0)
 #define page_address_init()  do { } while(0)
 #endif
 
Index: linux/mm/highmem.c
===================================================================
--- linux.orig/mm/highmem.c
+++ linux/mm/highmem.c
@@ -14,6 +14,11 @@
  * based on Linus' idea.
  *
  * Copyright (C) 1999 Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>
+ *
+ * Largely rewritten to get rid of all global locks
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2006 Red Hat, Inc., Peter Zijlstra <pzijlstr@redhat.com>
+ *
  */
 
 #include <linux/mm.h>
@@ -27,18 +32,14 @@
 #include <linux/hash.h>
 #include <linux/highmem.h>
 #include <linux/blktrace_api.h>
+
 #include <asm/tlbflush.h>
+#include <asm/pgtable.h>
 
-/*
- * Virtual_count is not a pure "count".
- *  0 means that it is not mapped, and has not been mapped
- *    since a TLB flush - it is usable.
- *  1 means that there are no users, but it has been mapped
- *    since the last TLB flush - so we can't use it.
- *  n means that there are (n-1) current users of it.
- */
 #ifdef CONFIG_HIGHMEM
 
+static int __set_page_address(struct page *page, void *virtual, int pos);
+
 unsigned long totalhigh_pages __read_mostly;
 
 unsigned int nr_free_highpages (void)
@@ -52,164 +53,208 @@ unsigned int nr_free_highpages (void)
 	return pages;
 }
 
-static int pkmap_count[LAST_PKMAP];
-static unsigned int last_pkmap_nr;
-static  __cacheline_aligned_in_smp DEFINE_SPINLOCK(kmap_lock);
+/*
+ * count is not a pure "count".
+ *  0 means its owned exclusively by someone
+ *  1 means its free for use - either mapped or not.
+ *  n means that there are (n-1) current users of it.
+ */
+static atomic_t pkmap_count[LAST_PKMAP];
+static atomic_t pkmap_hand;
 
 pte_t * pkmap_page_table;
 
 static DECLARE_WAIT_QUEUE_HEAD(pkmap_map_wait);
 
-static void flush_all_zero_pkmaps(void)
+/*
+ * Try to free a given kmap slot.
+ *
+ * Returns:
+ *  -1 - in use
+ *   0 - free, no TLB flush needed
+ *   1 - free, needs TLB flush
+ */
+static int pkmap_try_free(int pos)
 {
-	int i;
-
-	flush_cache_kmaps();
+	if (atomic_cmpxchg(&pkmap_count[pos], 1, 0) != 1)
+		return -1;
 
-	for (i = 0; i < LAST_PKMAP; i++) {
-		struct page *page;
+	/*
+	 * TODO: add a young bit to make it CLOCK
+	 */
+	if (!pte_none(pkmap_page_table[pos])) {
+		struct page *page = pte_page(pkmap_page_table[pos]);
+		unsigned long addr = PKMAP_ADDR(pos);
+		pte_t *ptep = &pkmap_page_table[pos];
+
+		VM_BUG_ON(addr != (unsigned long)page_address(page));
+
+		if (!__set_page_address(page, NULL, pos))
+			BUG();
+		flush_kernel_dcache_page(page);
+		pte_clear(&init_mm, addr, ptep);
 
-		/*
-		 * zero means we don't have anything to do,
-		 * >1 means that it is still in use. Only
-		 * a count of 1 means that it is free but
-		 * needs to be unmapped
-		 */
-		if (pkmap_count[i] != 1)
-			continue;
-		pkmap_count[i] = 0;
+		return 1;
+	}
 
-		/* sanity check */
-		BUG_ON(pte_none(pkmap_page_table[i]));
+	return 0;
+}
 
-		/*
-		 * Don't need an atomic fetch-and-clear op here;
-		 * no-one has the page mapped, and cannot get at
-		 * its virtual address (and hence PTE) without first
-		 * getting the kmap_lock (which is held here).
-		 * So no dangers, even with speculative execution.
-		 */
-		page = pte_page(pkmap_page_table[i]);
-		pte_clear(&init_mm, (unsigned long)page_address(page),
-			  &pkmap_page_table[i]);
+static inline void pkmap_put(atomic_t *counter)
+{
+	switch (atomic_dec_return(counter)) {
+	case 0:
+		BUG();
 
-		set_page_address(page, NULL);
+	case 1:
+		wake_up(&pkmap_map_wait);
 	}
-	flush_tlb_kernel_range(PKMAP_ADDR(0), PKMAP_ADDR(LAST_PKMAP));
 }
 
-static inline unsigned long map_new_virtual(struct page *page)
+#define TLB_BATCH	32
+
+static int pkmap_get_free(void)
 {
-	unsigned long vaddr;
-	int count;
+	int i, pos, flush;
+	DECLARE_WAITQUEUE(wait, current);
 
-start:
-	count = LAST_PKMAP;
-	/* Find an empty entry */
-	for (;;) {
-		last_pkmap_nr = (last_pkmap_nr + 1) & LAST_PKMAP_MASK;
-		if (!last_pkmap_nr) {
-			flush_all_zero_pkmaps();
-			count = LAST_PKMAP;
-		}
-		if (!pkmap_count[last_pkmap_nr])
-			break;	/* Found a usable entry */
-		if (--count)
-			continue;
+restart:
+	for (i = 0; i < LAST_PKMAP; i++) {
+		pos = atomic_inc_return(&pkmap_hand) % LAST_PKMAP;
+		flush = pkmap_try_free(pos);
+		if (flush >= 0)
+			goto got_one;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * wait for somebody else to unmap their entries
+	 */
+	__set_current_state(TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
+	add_wait_queue(&pkmap_map_wait, &wait);
+	schedule();
+	remove_wait_queue(&pkmap_map_wait, &wait);
+
+	goto restart;
+
+got_one:
+	if (flush) {
+#if 0
+		flush_tlb_kernel_range(PKMAP_ADDR(pos), PKMAP_ADDR(pos+1));
+#else
+		int pos2 = (pos + 1) % LAST_PKMAP;
+		int nr;
+		int entries[TLB_BATCH];
 
 		/*
-		 * Sleep for somebody else to unmap their entries
+		 * For those architectures that cannot help but flush the
+		 * whole TLB, flush some more entries to make it worthwhile.
+		 * Scan ahead of the hand to minimise search distances.
 		 */
-		{
-			DECLARE_WAITQUEUE(wait, current);
+		for (i = 0, nr = 0; i < LAST_PKMAP && nr < TLB_BATCH;
+				i++, pos2 = (pos2 + 1) % LAST_PKMAP) {
 
-			__set_current_state(TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
-			add_wait_queue(&pkmap_map_wait, &wait);
-			spin_unlock(&kmap_lock);
-			schedule();
-			remove_wait_queue(&pkmap_map_wait, &wait);
-			spin_lock(&kmap_lock);
-
-			/* Somebody else might have mapped it while we slept */
-			if (page_address(page))
-				return (unsigned long)page_address(page);
+			flush = pkmap_try_free(pos2);
+			if (flush < 0)
+				continue;
+
+			if (!flush) {
+				atomic_t *counter = &pkmap_count[pos2];
+				VM_BUG_ON(atomic_read(counter) != 0);
+				atomic_set(counter, 2);
+				pkmap_put(counter);
+			} else
+				entries[nr++] = pos2;
+		}
+		flush_tlb_kernel_range(PKMAP_ADDR(0), PKMAP_ADDR(LAST_PKMAP));
 
-			/* Re-start */
-			goto start;
+		for (i = 0; i < nr; i++) {
+			atomic_t *counter = &pkmap_count[entries[i]];
+			VM_BUG_ON(atomic_read(counter) != 0);
+			atomic_set(counter, 2);
+			pkmap_put(counter);
 		}
+#endif
 	}
-	vaddr = PKMAP_ADDR(last_pkmap_nr);
-	set_pte_at(&init_mm, vaddr,
-		   &(pkmap_page_table[last_pkmap_nr]), mk_pte(page, kmap_prot));
+	return pos;
+}
+
+static unsigned long pkmap_insert(struct page *page)
+{
+	int pos = pkmap_get_free();
+	unsigned long vaddr = PKMAP_ADDR(pos);
+	pte_t *ptep = &pkmap_page_table[pos];
+	pte_t entry = mk_pte(page, kmap_prot);
+	atomic_t *counter = &pkmap_count[pos];
+
+	VM_BUG_ON(atomic_read(counter) != 0);
 
-	pkmap_count[last_pkmap_nr] = 1;
-	set_page_address(page, (void *)vaddr);
+	set_pte_at(&init_mm, vaddr, ptep, entry);
+	if (unlikely(!__set_page_address(page, (void *)vaddr, pos))) {
+		/*
+		 * concurrent pkmap_inserts for this page -
+		 * the other won the race, release this entry.
+		 *
+		 * we can still clear the pte without a tlb flush since
+		 * it couldn't have been used yet.
+		 */
+		pte_clear(&init_mm, vaddr, ptep);
+		VM_BUG_ON(atomic_read(counter) != 0);
+		atomic_set(counter, 2);
+		pkmap_put(counter);
+		vaddr = 0;
+	} else
+		atomic_set(counter, 2);
 
 	return vaddr;
 }
 
-void fastcall *kmap_high(struct page *page)
+fastcall void *kmap_high(struct page *page)
 {
 	unsigned long vaddr;
-
-	/*
-	 * For highmem pages, we can't trust "virtual" until
-	 * after we have the lock.
-	 *
-	 * We cannot call this from interrupts, as it may block
-	 */
-	spin_lock(&kmap_lock);
+again:
 	vaddr = (unsigned long)page_address(page);
+	if (vaddr) {
+		atomic_t *counter = &pkmap_count[PKMAP_NR(vaddr)];
+		if (atomic_inc_not_zero(counter)) {
+			/*
+			 * atomic_inc_not_zero implies a (memory) barrier on success
+			 * so page address will be reloaded.
+			 */
+			unsigned long vaddr2 = (unsigned long)page_address(page);
+			if (likely(vaddr == vaddr2))
+				return (void *)vaddr;
+
+			/*
+			 * Oops, we got someone else.
+			 *
+			 * This can happen if we get preempted after
+			 * page_address() and before atomic_inc_not_zero()
+			 * and during that preemption this slot is freed and
+			 * reused.
+			 */
+			pkmap_put(counter);
+			goto again;
+		}
+	}
+
+	vaddr = pkmap_insert(page);
 	if (!vaddr)
-		vaddr = map_new_virtual(page);
-	pkmap_count[PKMAP_NR(vaddr)]++;
-	BUG_ON(pkmap_count[PKMAP_NR(vaddr)] < 2);
-	spin_unlock(&kmap_lock);
-	return (void*) vaddr;
+		goto again;
+
+	return (void *)vaddr;
 }
 
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(kmap_high);
 
-void fastcall kunmap_high(struct page *page)
+fastcall void kunmap_high(struct page *page)
 {
-	unsigned long vaddr;
-	unsigned long nr;
-	int need_wakeup;
-
-	spin_lock(&kmap_lock);
-	vaddr = (unsigned long)page_address(page);
+	unsigned long vaddr = (unsigned long)page_address(page);
 	BUG_ON(!vaddr);
-	nr = PKMAP_NR(vaddr);
-
-	/*
-	 * A count must never go down to zero
-	 * without a TLB flush!
-	 */
-	need_wakeup = 0;
-	switch (--pkmap_count[nr]) {
-	case 0:
-		BUG();
-	case 1:
-		/*
-		 * Avoid an unnecessary wake_up() function call.
-		 * The common case is pkmap_count[] == 1, but
-		 * no waiters.
-		 * The tasks queued in the wait-queue are guarded
-		 * by both the lock in the wait-queue-head and by
-		 * the kmap_lock.  As the kmap_lock is held here,
-		 * no need for the wait-queue-head's lock.  Simply
-		 * test if the queue is empty.
-		 */
-		need_wakeup = waitqueue_active(&pkmap_map_wait);
-	}
-	spin_unlock(&kmap_lock);
-
-	/* do wake-up, if needed, race-free outside of the spin lock */
-	if (need_wakeup)
-		wake_up(&pkmap_map_wait);
+	pkmap_put(&pkmap_count[PKMAP_NR(vaddr)]);
 }
 
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(kunmap_high);
+
 #endif
 
 #if defined(HASHED_PAGE_VIRTUAL)
@@ -217,19 +262,13 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(kunmap_high);
 #define PA_HASH_ORDER	7
 
 /*
- * Describes one page->virtual association
+ * Describes one page->virtual address association.
  */
-struct page_address_map {
+static struct page_address_map {
 	struct page *page;
 	void *virtual;
 	struct list_head list;
-};
-
-/*
- * page_address_map freelist, allocated from page_address_maps.
- */
-static struct list_head page_address_pool;	/* freelist */
-static spinlock_t pool_lock;			/* protects page_address_pool */
+} page_address_maps[LAST_PKMAP];
 
 /*
  * Hash table bucket
@@ -244,91 +283,123 @@ static struct page_address_slot *page_sl
 	return &page_address_htable[hash_ptr(page, PA_HASH_ORDER)];
 }
 
-void *page_address(struct page *page)
+static void *__page_address(struct page_address_slot *pas, struct page *page)
 {
-	unsigned long flags;
-	void *ret;
-	struct page_address_slot *pas;
-
-	if (!PageHighMem(page))
-		return lowmem_page_address(page);
+	void *ret = NULL;
 
-	pas = page_slot(page);
-	ret = NULL;
-	spin_lock_irqsave(&pas->lock, flags);
 	if (!list_empty(&pas->lh)) {
 		struct page_address_map *pam;
 
 		list_for_each_entry(pam, &pas->lh, list) {
 			if (pam->page == page) {
 				ret = pam->virtual;
-				goto done;
+				break;
 			}
 		}
 	}
-done:
+
+	return ret;
+}
+
+void *page_address(struct page *page)
+{
+	unsigned long flags;
+	void *ret;
+	struct page_address_slot *pas;
+
+	if (!PageHighMem(page))
+		return lowmem_page_address(page);
+
+	pas = page_slot(page);
+	spin_lock_irqsave(&pas->lock, flags);
+	ret = __page_address(pas, page);
 	spin_unlock_irqrestore(&pas->lock, flags);
 	return ret;
 }
 
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(page_address);
 
-void set_page_address(struct page *page, void *virtual)
+static int __set_page_address(struct page *page, void *virtual, int pos)
 {
+	int ret = 0;
 	unsigned long flags;
 	struct page_address_slot *pas;
 	struct page_address_map *pam;
 
-	BUG_ON(!PageHighMem(page));
+	VM_BUG_ON(!PageHighMem(page));
+	VM_BUG_ON(atomic_read(&pkmap_count[pos]) != 0);
+	VM_BUG_ON(pos < 0 || pos >= LAST_PKMAP);
 
 	pas = page_slot(page);
-	if (virtual) {		/* Add */
-		BUG_ON(list_empty(&page_address_pool));
+	pam = &page_address_maps[pos];
 
-		spin_lock_irqsave(&pool_lock, flags);
-		pam = list_entry(page_address_pool.next,
-				struct page_address_map, list);
-		list_del(&pam->list);
-		spin_unlock_irqrestore(&pool_lock, flags);
-
-		pam->page = page;
-		pam->virtual = virtual;
-
-		spin_lock_irqsave(&pas->lock, flags);
-		list_add_tail(&pam->list, &pas->lh);
-		spin_unlock_irqrestore(&pas->lock, flags);
-	} else {		/* Remove */
-		spin_lock_irqsave(&pas->lock, flags);
-		list_for_each_entry(pam, &pas->lh, list) {
-			if (pam->page == page) {
-				list_del(&pam->list);
-				spin_unlock_irqrestore(&pas->lock, flags);
-				spin_lock_irqsave(&pool_lock, flags);
-				list_add_tail(&pam->list, &page_address_pool);
-				spin_unlock_irqrestore(&pool_lock, flags);
-				goto done;
-			}
+	spin_lock_irqsave(&pas->lock, flags);
+	if (virtual) { /* add */
+		VM_BUG_ON(!list_empty(&pam->list));
+
+		if (!__page_address(pas, page)) {
+			pam->page = page;
+			pam->virtual = virtual;
+			list_add_tail(&pam->list, &pas->lh);
+			ret = 1;
+		}
+	} else { /* remove */
+		if (!list_empty(&pam->list)) {
+			list_del_init(&pam->list);
+			ret = 1;
 		}
-		spin_unlock_irqrestore(&pas->lock, flags);
 	}
-done:
-	return;
+	spin_unlock_irqrestore(&pas->lock, flags);
+
+	return ret;
 }
 
-static struct page_address_map page_address_maps[LAST_PKMAP];
+int set_page_address(struct page *page, void *virtual)
+{
+	/*
+	 * set_page_address is not supposed to be called when using
+	 * hashed virtual addresses.
+	 */
+	BUG();
+	return 0;
+}
 
-void __init page_address_init(void)
+void __init __page_address_init(void)
 {
 	int i;
 
-	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&page_address_pool);
 	for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(page_address_maps); i++)
-		list_add(&page_address_maps[i].list, &page_address_pool);
+		INIT_LIST_HEAD(&page_address_maps[i].list);
+
 	for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(page_address_htable); i++) {
 		INIT_LIST_HEAD(&page_address_htable[i].lh);
 		spin_lock_init(&page_address_htable[i].lock);
 	}
-	spin_lock_init(&pool_lock);
+}
+
+#elif defined (CONFIG_HIGHMEM) /* HASHED_PAGE_VIRTUAL */
+
+static int __set_page_address(struct page *page, void *virtual, int pos)
+{
+	return set_page_address(page, virtual);
 }
 
 #endif	/* defined(CONFIG_HIGHMEM) && !defined(WANT_PAGE_VIRTUAL) */
+
+#if defined(CONFIG_HIGHMEM) || defined(HASHED_PAGE_VIRTUAL)
+
+void __init page_address_init(void)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_HIGHMEM
+	int i;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(pkmap_count); i++)
+		atomic_set(&pkmap_count[i], 1);
+#endif
+
+#ifdef HASHED_PAGE_VIRTUAL
+	__page_address_init();
+#endif
+}
+
+#endif



             reply	other threads:[~2007-01-28 14:11 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 26+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2007-01-28 14:11 Peter Zijlstra [this message]
2007-01-28 14:49 ` Christoph Hellwig
2007-01-28 15:17   ` Ingo Molnar
2007-01-28 15:28     ` Christoph Hellwig
2007-01-28 15:48       ` Ingo Molnar
2007-01-28 15:54         ` Christoph Hellwig
2007-01-28 18:19           ` Ingo Molnar
2007-01-28 22:29 ` Andrew Morton
2007-01-29  2:52   ` Nick Piggin
2007-01-29  9:44   ` Peter Zijlstra
2007-01-30  1:31     ` Martin J. Bligh
2007-01-30  1:41       ` Andrew Morton
2007-01-30  1:49         ` Martin J. Bligh
2007-01-30  2:15           ` Andrew Morton
2007-01-31  0:44             ` David Chinner
2007-01-31  1:11               ` Andrew Morton
2007-01-31  3:22                 ` David Chinner
2007-02-02 12:05                   ` Christoph Hellwig
2007-02-02 19:24                     ` Matt Mackall
2007-02-02 23:16                       ` David Chinner
2007-02-02 23:14                     ` David Chinner
2007-01-29 19:08   ` Ingo Molnar
2007-01-29 19:19     ` Hugh Dickins
2007-01-29 19:53       ` Ingo Molnar
2007-01-29 20:06     ` Ingo Molnar
2007-01-30  2:02     ` Nick Piggin

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as well as URLs for NNTP newsgroup(s).