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From: Mike Rapoport <rppt@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
To: Jonathan Corbet <corbet@lwn.net>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>,
	Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>,
	linux-doc <linux-doc@vger.kernel.org>,
	linux-mm <linux-mm@kvack.org>,
	lkml <linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org>,
	Mike Rapoport <rppt@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Subject: [PATCH 7/7] docs/vm: ksm: split userspace interface to admin-guide/mm/ksm.rst
Date: Tue, 24 Apr 2018 09:40:28 +0300	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <1524552028-7017-8-git-send-email-rppt@linux.vnet.ibm.com> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <1524552028-7017-1-git-send-email-rppt@linux.vnet.ibm.com>

Signed-off-by: Mike Rapoport <rppt@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
---
 Documentation/admin-guide/mm/index.rst |   1 +
 Documentation/admin-guide/mm/ksm.rst   | 189 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 Documentation/vm/ksm.rst               | 176 +-----------------------------
 3 files changed, 191 insertions(+), 175 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/admin-guide/mm/ksm.rst

diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/index.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/index.rst
index 6c8b554..ad28644 100644
--- a/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/index.rst
@@ -23,6 +23,7 @@ the Linux memory management.
 
    hugetlbpage
    idle_page_tracking
+   ksm
    pagemap
    soft-dirty
    userfaultfd
diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/ksm.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/ksm.rst
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9303786
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/ksm.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,189 @@
+.. _admin_guide_ksm:
+
+=======================
+Kernel Samepage Merging
+=======================
+
+Overview
+========
+
+KSM is a memory-saving de-duplication feature, enabled by CONFIG_KSM=y,
+added to the Linux kernel in 2.6.32.  See ``mm/ksm.c`` for its implementation,
+and http://lwn.net/Articles/306704/ and http://lwn.net/Articles/330589/
+
+KSM was originally developed for use with KVM (where it was known as
+Kernel Shared Memory), to fit more virtual machines into physical memory,
+by sharing the data common between them.  But it can be useful to any
+application which generates many instances of the same data.
+
+The KSM daemon ksmd periodically scans those areas of user memory
+which have been registered with it, looking for pages of identical
+content which can be replaced by a single write-protected page (which
+is automatically copied if a process later wants to update its
+content). The amount of pages that KSM daemon scans in a single pass
+and the time between the passes are configured using :ref:`sysfs
+intraface <ksm_sysfs>`
+
+KSM only merges anonymous (private) pages, never pagecache (file) pages.
+KSM's merged pages were originally locked into kernel memory, but can now
+be swapped out just like other user pages (but sharing is broken when they
+are swapped back in: ksmd must rediscover their identity and merge again).
+
+Controlling KSM with madvise
+============================
+
+KSM only operates on those areas of address space which an application
+has advised to be likely candidates for merging, by using the madvise(2)
+system call::
+
+	int madvise(addr, length, MADV_MERGEABLE)
+
+The app may call
+
+::
+
+	int madvise(addr, length, MADV_UNMERGEABLE)
+
+to cancel that advice and restore unshared pages: whereupon KSM
+unmerges whatever it merged in that range.  Note: this unmerging call
+may suddenly require more memory than is available - possibly failing
+with EAGAIN, but more probably arousing the Out-Of-Memory killer.
+
+If KSM is not configured into the running kernel, madvise MADV_MERGEABLE
+and MADV_UNMERGEABLE simply fail with EINVAL.  If the running kernel was
+built with CONFIG_KSM=y, those calls will normally succeed: even if the
+the KSM daemon is not currently running, MADV_MERGEABLE still registers
+the range for whenever the KSM daemon is started; even if the range
+cannot contain any pages which KSM could actually merge; even if
+MADV_UNMERGEABLE is applied to a range which was never MADV_MERGEABLE.
+
+If a region of memory must be split into at least one new MADV_MERGEABLE
+or MADV_UNMERGEABLE region, the madvise may return ENOMEM if the process
+will exceed ``vm.max_map_count`` (see Documentation/sysctl/vm.txt).
+
+Like other madvise calls, they are intended for use on mapped areas of
+the user address space: they will report ENOMEM if the specified range
+includes unmapped gaps (though working on the intervening mapped areas),
+and might fail with EAGAIN if not enough memory for internal structures.
+
+Applications should be considerate in their use of MADV_MERGEABLE,
+restricting its use to areas likely to benefit.  KSM's scans may use a lot
+of processing power: some installations will disable KSM for that reason.
+
+.. _ksm_sysfs:
+
+KSM daemon sysfs interface
+==========================
+
+The KSM daemon is controlled by sysfs files in ``/sys/kernel/mm/ksm/``,
+readable by all but writable only by root:
+
+pages_to_scan
+        how many pages to scan before ksmd goes to sleep
+        e.g. ``echo 100 > /sys/kernel/mm/ksm/pages_to_scan``.
+
+        Default: 100 (chosen for demonstration purposes)
+
+sleep_millisecs
+        how many milliseconds ksmd should sleep before next scan
+        e.g. ``echo 20 > /sys/kernel/mm/ksm/sleep_millisecs``
+
+        Default: 20 (chosen for demonstration purposes)
+
+merge_across_nodes
+        specifies if pages from different NUMA nodes can be merged.
+        When set to 0, ksm merges only pages which physically reside
+        in the memory area of same NUMA node. That brings lower
+        latency to access of shared pages. Systems with more nodes, at
+        significant NUMA distances, are likely to benefit from the
+        lower latency of setting 0. Smaller systems, which need to
+        minimize memory usage, are likely to benefit from the greater
+        sharing of setting 1 (default). You may wish to compare how
+        your system performs under each setting, before deciding on
+        which to use. ``merge_across_nodes`` setting can be changed only
+        when there are no ksm shared pages in the system: set run 2 to
+        unmerge pages first, then to 1 after changing
+        ``merge_across_nodes``, to remerge according to the new setting.
+
+        Default: 1 (merging across nodes as in earlier releases)
+
+run
+        * set to 0 to stop ksmd from running but keep merged pages,
+        * set to 1 to run ksmd e.g. ``echo 1 > /sys/kernel/mm/ksm/run``,
+        * set to 2 to stop ksmd and unmerge all pages currently merged, but
+	  leave mergeable areas registered for next run.
+
+        Default: 0 (must be changed to 1 to activate KSM, except if
+        CONFIG_SYSFS is disabled)
+
+use_zero_pages
+        specifies whether empty pages (i.e. allocated pages that only
+        contain zeroes) should be treated specially.  When set to 1,
+        empty pages are merged with the kernel zero page(s) instead of
+        with each other as it would happen normally. This can improve
+        the performance on architectures with coloured zero pages,
+        depending on the workload. Care should be taken when enabling
+        this setting, as it can potentially degrade the performance of
+        KSM for some workloads, for example if the checksums of pages
+        candidate for merging match the checksum of an empty
+        page. This setting can be changed at any time, it is only
+        effective for pages merged after the change.
+
+        Default: 0 (normal KSM behaviour as in earlier releases)
+
+max_page_sharing
+        Maximum sharing allowed for each KSM page. This enforces a
+        deduplication limit to avoid high latency for virtual memory
+        operations that involve traversal of the virtual mappings that
+        share the KSM page. The minimum value is 2 as a newly created
+        KSM page will have at least two sharers. The higher this value
+        the faster KSM will merge the memory and the higher the
+        deduplication factor will be, but the slower the worst case
+        virtual mappings traversal could be for any given KSM
+        page. Slowing down this traversal means there will be higher
+        latency for certain virtual memory operations happening during
+        swapping, compaction, NUMA balancing and page migration, in
+        turn decreasing responsiveness for the caller of those virtual
+        memory operations. The scheduler latency of other tasks not
+        involved with the VM operations doing the virtual mappings
+        traversal is not affected by this parameter as these
+        traversals are always schedule friendly themselves.
+
+stable_node_chains_prune_millisecs
+        specifies how frequently KSM checks the metadata of the pages
+        that hit the deduplication limit for stale information.
+        Smaller milllisecs values will free up the KSM metadata with
+        lower latency, but they will make ksmd use more CPU during the
+        scan. It's a noop if not a single KSM page hit the
+        ``max_page_sharing`` yet.
+
+The effectiveness of KSM and MADV_MERGEABLE is shown in ``/sys/kernel/mm/ksm/``:
+
+pages_shared
+        how many shared pages are being used
+pages_sharing
+        how many more sites are sharing them i.e. how much saved
+pages_unshared
+        how many pages unique but repeatedly checked for merging
+pages_volatile
+        how many pages changing too fast to be placed in a tree
+full_scans
+        how many times all mergeable areas have been scanned
+stable_node_chains
+        the number of KSM pages that hit the ``max_page_sharing`` limit
+stable_node_dups
+        number of duplicated KSM pages
+
+A high ratio of ``pages_sharing`` to ``pages_shared`` indicates good
+sharing, but a high ratio of ``pages_unshared`` to ``pages_sharing``
+indicates wasted effort.  ``pages_volatile`` embraces several
+different kinds of activity, but a high proportion there would also
+indicate poor use of madvise MADV_MERGEABLE.
+
+The maximum possible ``pages_sharing/pages_shared`` ratio is limited by the
+``max_page_sharing`` tunable. To increase the ratio ``max_page_sharing`` must
+be increased accordingly.
+
+--
+Izik Eidus,
+Hugh Dickins, 17 Nov 2009
diff --git a/Documentation/vm/ksm.rst b/Documentation/vm/ksm.rst
index afcf5a8..d32016d 100644
--- a/Documentation/vm/ksm.rst
+++ b/Documentation/vm/ksm.rst
@@ -4,185 +4,11 @@
 Kernel Samepage Merging
 =======================
 
-Overview
-========
-
 KSM is a memory-saving de-duplication feature, enabled by CONFIG_KSM=y,
 added to the Linux kernel in 2.6.32.  See ``mm/ksm.c`` for its implementation,
 and http://lwn.net/Articles/306704/ and http://lwn.net/Articles/330589/
 
-KSM was originally developed for use with KVM (where it was known as
-Kernel Shared Memory), to fit more virtual machines into physical memory,
-by sharing the data common between them.  But it can be useful to any
-application which generates many instances of the same data.
-
-The KSM daemon ksmd periodically scans those areas of user memory
-which have been registered with it, looking for pages of identical
-content which can be replaced by a single write-protected page (which
-is automatically copied if a process later wants to update its
-content). The amount of pages that KSM daemon scans in a single pass
-and the time between the passes are configured using :ref:`sysfs
-intraface <ksm_sysfs>`
-
-KSM only merges anonymous (private) pages, never pagecache (file) pages.
-KSM's merged pages were originally locked into kernel memory, but can now
-be swapped out just like other user pages (but sharing is broken when they
-are swapped back in: ksmd must rediscover their identity and merge again).
-
-Controlling KSM with madvise
-============================
-
-KSM only operates on those areas of address space which an application
-has advised to be likely candidates for merging, by using the madvise(2)
-system call::
-
-	int madvise(addr, length, MADV_MERGEABLE)
-
-The app may call
-
-::
-
-	int madvise(addr, length, MADV_UNMERGEABLE)
-
-to cancel that advice and restore unshared pages: whereupon KSM
-unmerges whatever it merged in that range.  Note: this unmerging call
-may suddenly require more memory than is available - possibly failing
-with EAGAIN, but more probably arousing the Out-Of-Memory killer.
-
-If KSM is not configured into the running kernel, madvise MADV_MERGEABLE
-and MADV_UNMERGEABLE simply fail with EINVAL.  If the running kernel was
-built with CONFIG_KSM=y, those calls will normally succeed: even if the
-the KSM daemon is not currently running, MADV_MERGEABLE still registers
-the range for whenever the KSM daemon is started; even if the range
-cannot contain any pages which KSM could actually merge; even if
-MADV_UNMERGEABLE is applied to a range which was never MADV_MERGEABLE.
-
-If a region of memory must be split into at least one new MADV_MERGEABLE
-or MADV_UNMERGEABLE region, the madvise may return ENOMEM if the process
-will exceed ``vm.max_map_count`` (see Documentation/sysctl/vm.txt).
-
-Like other madvise calls, they are intended for use on mapped areas of
-the user address space: they will report ENOMEM if the specified range
-includes unmapped gaps (though working on the intervening mapped areas),
-and might fail with EAGAIN if not enough memory for internal structures.
-
-Applications should be considerate in their use of MADV_MERGEABLE,
-restricting its use to areas likely to benefit.  KSM's scans may use a lot
-of processing power: some installations will disable KSM for that reason.
-
-.. _ksm_sysfs:
-
-KSM daemon sysfs interface
-==========================
-
-The KSM daemon is controlled by sysfs files in ``/sys/kernel/mm/ksm/``,
-readable by all but writable only by root:
-
-pages_to_scan
-        how many pages to scan before ksmd goes to sleep
-        e.g. ``echo 100 > /sys/kernel/mm/ksm/pages_to_scan``.
-
-        Default: 100 (chosen for demonstration purposes)
-
-sleep_millisecs
-        how many milliseconds ksmd should sleep before next scan
-        e.g. ``echo 20 > /sys/kernel/mm/ksm/sleep_millisecs``
-
-        Default: 20 (chosen for demonstration purposes)
-
-merge_across_nodes
-        specifies if pages from different NUMA nodes can be merged.
-        When set to 0, ksm merges only pages which physically reside
-        in the memory area of same NUMA node. That brings lower
-        latency to access of shared pages. Systems with more nodes, at
-        significant NUMA distances, are likely to benefit from the
-        lower latency of setting 0. Smaller systems, which need to
-        minimize memory usage, are likely to benefit from the greater
-        sharing of setting 1 (default). You may wish to compare how
-        your system performs under each setting, before deciding on
-        which to use. ``merge_across_nodes`` setting can be changed only
-        when there are no ksm shared pages in the system: set run 2 to
-        unmerge pages first, then to 1 after changing
-        ``merge_across_nodes``, to remerge according to the new setting.
-
-        Default: 1 (merging across nodes as in earlier releases)
-
-run
-        * set to 0 to stop ksmd from running but keep merged pages,
-        * set to 1 to run ksmd e.g. ``echo 1 > /sys/kernel/mm/ksm/run``,
-        * set to 2 to stop ksmd and unmerge all pages currently merged, but
-	  leave mergeable areas registered for next run.
-
-        Default: 0 (must be changed to 1 to activate KSM, except if
-        CONFIG_SYSFS is disabled)
-
-use_zero_pages
-        specifies whether empty pages (i.e. allocated pages that only
-        contain zeroes) should be treated specially.  When set to 1,
-        empty pages are merged with the kernel zero page(s) instead of
-        with each other as it would happen normally. This can improve
-        the performance on architectures with coloured zero pages,
-        depending on the workload. Care should be taken when enabling
-        this setting, as it can potentially degrade the performance of
-        KSM for some workloads, for example if the checksums of pages
-        candidate for merging match the checksum of an empty
-        page. This setting can be changed at any time, it is only
-        effective for pages merged after the change.
-
-        Default: 0 (normal KSM behaviour as in earlier releases)
-
-max_page_sharing
-        Maximum sharing allowed for each KSM page. This enforces a
-        deduplication limit to avoid high latency for virtual memory
-        operations that involve traversal of the virtual mappings that
-        share the KSM page. The minimum value is 2 as a newly created
-        KSM page will have at least two sharers. The higher this value
-        the faster KSM will merge the memory and the higher the
-        deduplication factor will be, but the slower the worst case
-        virtual mappings traversal could be for any given KSM
-        page. Slowing down this traversal means there will be higher
-        latency for certain virtual memory operations happening during
-        swapping, compaction, NUMA balancing and page migration, in
-        turn decreasing responsiveness for the caller of those virtual
-        memory operations. The scheduler latency of other tasks not
-        involved with the VM operations doing the virtual mappings
-        traversal is not affected by this parameter as these
-        traversals are always schedule friendly themselves.
-
-stable_node_chains_prune_millisecs
-        specifies how frequently KSM checks the metadata of the pages
-        that hit the deduplication limit for stale information.
-        Smaller milllisecs values will free up the KSM metadata with
-        lower latency, but they will make ksmd use more CPU during the
-        scan. It's a noop if not a single KSM page hit the
-        ``max_page_sharing`` yet.
-
-The effectiveness of KSM and MADV_MERGEABLE is shown in ``/sys/kernel/mm/ksm/``:
-
-pages_shared
-        how many shared pages are being used
-pages_sharing
-        how many more sites are sharing them i.e. how much saved
-pages_unshared
-        how many pages unique but repeatedly checked for merging
-pages_volatile
-        how many pages changing too fast to be placed in a tree
-full_scans
-        how many times all mergeable areas have been scanned
-stable_node_chains
-        the number of KSM pages that hit the ``max_page_sharing`` limit
-stable_node_dups
-        number of duplicated KSM pages
-
-A high ratio of ``pages_sharing`` to ``pages_shared`` indicates good
-sharing, but a high ratio of ``pages_unshared`` to ``pages_sharing``
-indicates wasted effort.  ``pages_volatile`` embraces several
-different kinds of activity, but a high proportion there would also
-indicate poor use of madvise MADV_MERGEABLE.
-
-The maximum possible ``pages_sharing/pages_shared`` ratio is limited by the
-``max_page_sharing`` tunable. To increase the ratio ``max_page_sharing`` must
-be increased accordingly.
+The userspace interface of KSM is described in :ref:`Documentation/admin-guide/mm/ksm.rst <admin_guide_ksm>`
 
 Design
 ======
-- 
2.7.4

  parent reply	other threads:[~2018-04-24  6:41 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 9+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2018-04-24  6:40 [PATCH 0/7] docs/vm: update KSM documentation Mike Rapoport
2018-04-24  6:40 ` [PATCH 1/7] mm/ksm: docs: extend overview comment and make it "DOC:" Mike Rapoport
2018-04-24  6:40 ` [PATCH 2/7] docs/vm: ksm: (mostly) formatting updates Mike Rapoport
2018-04-24  6:40 ` [PATCH 3/7] docs/vm: ksm: add "Design" section Mike Rapoport
2018-04-24  6:40 ` [PATCH 4/7] docs/vm: ksm: reshuffle text between "sysfs" and "design" sections Mike Rapoport
2018-04-24  6:40 ` [PATCH 5/7] docs/vm: ksm: update stable_node_chains_prune_millisecs description Mike Rapoport
2018-04-24  6:40 ` [PATCH 6/7] docs/vm: ksm: udpate description of stable_node_{dups,chains} Mike Rapoport
2018-04-24  6:40 ` Mike Rapoport [this message]
2018-04-27 23:25 ` [PATCH 0/7] docs/vm: update KSM documentation Jonathan Corbet

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