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* [PATCH] QRCU with lockless fastpath
@ 2007-02-25  6:23 Paul E. McKenney
  2007-02-25 20:16 ` Oleg Nesterov
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 2+ messages in thread
From: Paul E. McKenney @ 2007-02-25  6:23 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: jens.axboe; +Cc: linux-kernel, oleg, a.p.zijlstra, mingo, hch, akpm, stern

Hello!

This is an updated version of Oleg Nesterov's QRCU that avoids the
earlier lock acquisition on the synchronize_qrcu() fastpath.  This passes
rcutorture on x86 and the weakly ordered POWER.  A promela model of the
code passes as noted before for 2 readers and 3 updaters and for 3 readers
and 2 updaters.  3 readers and 3 updaters runs every machine that I have
access to out of memory -- nothing like a little combinatorial explosion!
However, after some thought, the proof ended up being simple enough:

1.	If synchronize_qrcu() exits too soon, then by definition
	there has been a reader present during synchronize_srcu()'s
	full execution.

2.	The counter corresponding to this reader will be at least
	1 at all times.

3.	The synchronize_qrcu() code forces at least one of the counters
	to be at least one at all times -- if there is a reader, the
	sum will be at least two.  (Unfortunately, we cannot fetch
	the pair of counters atomically.)

4.	Therefore, the only way that synchronize_qrcu()s fastpath can
	see a sum of 1 is if it races with another synchronize_qrcu() --
	the first synchronize_qrcu() must read one of the counters before
	the second synchronize_qrcu() increments it, and must read the
	other counter after the second synchronize_qrcu() decrements it.
	There can be at most one reader present through this entire
	operation -- otherwise, the first synchronize_qrcu() will see
	a sum of 2 or greater.

5.	But the second synchronize_qrcu() will not release the mutex
	until after the reader is done.  During this time, the first
	synchronize_qrcu() will always see a sum of at least 2, and
	therefore cannot take the remainder of the fastpath until the
	reader is done.

6.	Because the second synchronize_qrcu() holds the mutex, no other
	synchronize_qrcu() can manipulate the counters until the reader
	is done.  A repeat of the race called out in #4 above therefore
	cannot happen until after the reader is done, in which case it
	is safe for the first synchronize_qrcu() to proceed.

Therefore, two summations of the counter separated by a memory barrier
suffices and the implementation shown below also suffices.

(And, yes, the fastpath -could- check for a sum of zero and exit
immediately, but this would help only in case of a three-way race
between two synchronize_qrcu()s and a qrcu_read_unlock(), would add
another compare, so is not worth it.)

Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
---

 include/linux/srcu.h |   22 +++++++++++++
 kernel/srcu.c        |   86 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 2 files changed, 108 insertions(+)

diff -urpNa -X dontdiff linux-2.6.19/include/linux/srcu.h linux-2.6.19-qrcu-fp/include/linux/srcu.h
--- linux-2.6.19/include/linux/srcu.h	2006-11-29 13:57:37.000000000 -0800
+++ linux-2.6.19-qrcu-fp/include/linux/srcu.h	2007-02-05 16:00:18.000000000 -0800
@@ -27,6 +27,8 @@
 #ifndef _LINUX_SRCU_H
 #define _LINUX_SRCU_H
 
+#include <linux/wait.h>
+
 struct srcu_struct_array {
 	int c[2];
 };
@@ -50,4 +52,24 @@ void srcu_read_unlock(struct srcu_struct
 void synchronize_srcu(struct srcu_struct *sp);
 long srcu_batches_completed(struct srcu_struct *sp);
 
+/*
+ * fully compatible with srcu, but optimized for writers.
+ */
+
+struct qrcu_struct {
+	int completed;
+	atomic_t ctr[2];
+	wait_queue_head_t wq;
+	struct mutex mutex;
+};
+
+int init_qrcu_struct(struct qrcu_struct *qp);
+int qrcu_read_lock(struct qrcu_struct *qp);
+void qrcu_read_unlock(struct qrcu_struct *qp, int idx);
+void synchronize_qrcu(struct qrcu_struct *qp);
+
+static inline void cleanup_qrcu_struct(struct qrcu_struct *qp)
+{
+}
+
 #endif
diff -urpNa -X dontdiff linux-2.6.19/kernel/srcu.c linux-2.6.19-qrcu-fp/kernel/srcu.c
--- linux-2.6.19/kernel/srcu.c	2006-11-29 13:57:37.000000000 -0800
+++ linux-2.6.19-qrcu-fp/kernel/srcu.c	2007-02-11 18:10:35.000000000 -0800
@@ -256,3 +256,89 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(srcu_read_unlock);
 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(synchronize_srcu);
 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(srcu_batches_completed);
 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(srcu_readers_active);
+
+int init_qrcu_struct(struct qrcu_struct *qp)
+{
+	qp->completed = 0;
+	atomic_set(qp->ctr + 0, 1);
+	atomic_set(qp->ctr + 1, 0);
+	init_waitqueue_head(&qp->wq);
+	mutex_init(&qp->mutex);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+int qrcu_read_lock(struct qrcu_struct *qp)
+{
+	for (;;) {
+		int idx = qp->completed & 0x1;
+		if (likely(atomic_inc_not_zero(qp->ctr + idx)))
+			return idx;
+	}
+}
+
+void qrcu_read_unlock(struct qrcu_struct *qp, int idx)
+{
+	if (atomic_dec_and_test(qp->ctr + idx))
+		wake_up(&qp->wq);
+}
+
+void synchronize_qrcu(struct qrcu_struct *qp)
+{
+	int idx;
+
+	smp_mb();  /* Force preceding change to happen before fastpath check. */
+
+	/*
+	 * Fastpath: If the two counters sum to "1" at a given point in
+	 * time, there are no readers.  However, it takes two separate
+	 * loads to sample both counters, which won't occur simultaneously.
+	 * So we might race with a counter switch, so that we might see
+	 * ctr[0]==0, then the counter might switch, then we might see
+	 * ctr[1]==1 (unbeknownst to us because there is a reader still
+	 * there).  So we do a read memory barrier and recheck.  If the
+	 * same race happens again, there must have been a second counter
+	 * switch.  This second counter switch could not have happened
+	 * until all preceding readers finished, so if the condition
+	 * is true both times, we may safely proceed.
+	 *
+	 * This relies critically on the atomic increment and atomic
+	 * decrement being seen as executing in order.
+	 */
+
+	if (atomic_read(&qp->ctr[0]) + atomic_read(&qp->ctr[1]) <= 1) {
+		smp_rmb();  /* Keep two checks independent. */
+		if (atomic_read(&qp->ctr[0]) + atomic_read(&qp->ctr[1]) <= 1)
+			goto out;
+	}
+
+	mutex_lock(&qp->mutex);
+
+	idx = qp->completed & 0x1;
+	if (atomic_read(qp->ctr + idx) == 1)
+		goto out_unlock;
+
+	atomic_inc(qp->ctr + (idx ^ 0x1));
+
+	/*
+	 * Prevent subsequent decrement from being seen before previous
+	 * increment -- such an inversion could cause the fastpath
+	 * above to falsely conclude that there were no readers.  Also,
+	 * reduce the likelihood that qrcu_read_lock() will loop.
+	 */
+
+	smp_mb__after_atomic_inc();
+	qp->completed++;
+
+	atomic_dec(qp->ctr + idx);
+	__wait_event(qp->wq, !atomic_read(qp->ctr + idx));
+out_unlock:
+	mutex_unlock(&qp->mutex);
+out:
+	smp_mb(); /* force subsequent free after qrcu_read_unlock(). */
+}
+
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(init_qrcu_struct);
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(qrcu_read_lock);
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(qrcu_read_unlock);
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(synchronize_qrcu);

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 2+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH] QRCU with lockless fastpath
  2007-02-25  6:23 [PATCH] QRCU with lockless fastpath Paul E. McKenney
@ 2007-02-25 20:16 ` Oleg Nesterov
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 2+ messages in thread
From: Oleg Nesterov @ 2007-02-25 20:16 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Paul E. McKenney
  Cc: jens.axboe, linux-kernel, a.p.zijlstra, mingo, hch, akpm, stern

On 02/24, Paul E. McKenney wrote:
> 
> This is an updated version of Oleg Nesterov's QRCU that avoids the
> earlier lock acquisition on the synchronize_qrcu() fastpath.  This passes
> rcutorture on x86 and the weakly ordered POWER.  A promela model of the
> code passes as noted before for 2 readers and 3 updaters and for 3 readers
> and 2 updaters.  3 readers and 3 updaters runs every machine that I have
> access to out of memory -- nothing like a little combinatorial explosion!
> However, after some thought, the proof ended up being simple enough:
> 
> 1.	If synchronize_qrcu() exits too soon, then by definition
> 	there has been a reader present during synchronize_srcu()'s
> 	full execution.
> 
> 2.	The counter corresponding to this reader will be at least
> 	1 at all times.
> 
> 3.	The synchronize_qrcu() code forces at least one of the counters
> 	to be at least one at all times -- if there is a reader, the
> 	sum will be at least two.  (Unfortunately, we cannot fetch
> 	the pair of counters atomically.)
> 
> 4.	Therefore, the only way that synchronize_qrcu()s fastpath can
> 	see a sum of 1 is if it races with another synchronize_qrcu() --
> 	the first synchronize_qrcu() must read one of the counters before
> 	the second synchronize_qrcu() increments it, and must read the
> 	other counter after the second synchronize_qrcu() decrements it.
> 	There can be at most one reader present through this entire
> 	operation -- otherwise, the first synchronize_qrcu() will see
> 	a sum of 2 or greater.
> 
> 5.	But the second synchronize_qrcu() will not release the mutex
> 	until after the reader is done.  During this time, the first
> 	synchronize_qrcu() will always see a sum of at least 2, and
> 	therefore cannot take the remainder of the fastpath until the
> 	reader is done.
> 
> 6.	Because the second synchronize_qrcu() holds the mutex, no other
> 	synchronize_qrcu() can manipulate the counters until the reader
> 	is done.  A repeat of the race called out in #4 above therefore
> 	cannot happen until after the reader is done, in which case it
> 	is safe for the first synchronize_qrcu() to proceed.
> 
> Therefore, two summations of the counter separated by a memory barrier
> suffices and the implementation shown below also suffices.
> 
> (And, yes, the fastpath -could- check for a sum of zero and exit
> immediately, but this would help only in case of a three-way race
> between two synchronize_qrcu()s and a qrcu_read_unlock(), would add
> another compare, so is not worth it.)
> 
> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>

Thanks! This fastpath really improves QRCU.

Oleg.



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