LKML Archive on lore.kernel.org
help / color / mirror / Atom feed
From: Nadav Amit <namit@vmware.com>
To: <linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org>, <x86@kernel.org>
Cc: Nadav Amit <namit@vmware.com>, Alok Kataria <akataria@vmware.com>,
	Christopher Li <sparse@chrisli.org>,
	Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>,
	"H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>, Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>,
	Jan Beulich <JBeulich@suse.com>,
	Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>,
	Juergen Gross <jgross@suse.com>,
	Kate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>,
	Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>, <linux-sparse@vger.kernel.org>,
	Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>,
	Philippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>,
	Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>,
	<virtualization@lists.linux-foundation.org>,
	Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Subject: [PATCH v2 0/9] x86: macrofying inline asm for better compilation
Date: Mon, 4 Jun 2018 04:21:22 -0700	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <20180604112131.59100-1-namit@vmware.com> (raw)

This patch-set deals with an interesting yet stupid problem: kernel code
that does not get inlined despite its simplicity. There are several
causes for this behavior: "cold" attribute on __init, different function
optimization levels; conditional constant computations based on
__builtin_constant_p(); and finally large inline assembly blocks.

This patch-set deals with the inline assembly problem. I separated these
patches from the others (that were sent in the RFC) for easier
inclusion. I also separated the removal of unnecessary new-lines which
would be sent separately.

The problem with inline assembly is that inline assembly is often used
by the kernel for things that are other than code - for example,
assembly directives and data. GCC however is oblivious to the content of
the blocks and assumes their cost in space and time is proportional to
the number of the perceived assembly "instruction", according to the
number of newlines and semicolons. Alternatives, paravirt and other
mechanisms are affected, causing code not to be inlined, and degrading
compilation quality in general.

The solution that this patch-set carries for this problem is to create
an assembly macro, and then call it from the inline assembly block.  As
a result, the compiler sees a single "instruction" and assigns the more
appropriate cost to the code.

To avoid uglification of the code, as many noted, the macros are first
precompiled into an assembly file, which is later assembled together
with the the C files. This also enables to avoid duplicate
implementation that was set before for the asm and C code. This can be
seen in the exception table changes.

Overall this patch-set slightly increases the kernel size (my build was
done using my Ubuntu 18.04 config + localyesconfig for the record):

   text	   data	    bss	    dec	    hex	filename
18140829 10224724 2957312 31322865 1ddf2f1 ./vmlinux before
18163608 10227348 2957312 31348268 1de562c ./vmlinux after (+0.1%)

The number of static functions in the image is reduced by 379, but
actually inlining is even better, which does not always shows in these
numbers: a function may be inlined causing the calling function not to
be inlined.

The Makefile stuff may not be too clean. Ideas for improvements are
welcome.

v1->v2:	* Compiling the macros into a separate .s file, improving
	  readability (Linus)
	* Improving assembly formatting, applying most of the comments
	  according to my judgment (Jan)
	* Adding exception-table, cpufeature and jump-labels
	* Removing new-line cleanup; to be submitted separately

Cc: Alok Kataria <akataria@vmware.com>
Cc: Christopher Li <sparse@chrisli.org>
Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>
Cc: Jan Beulich <JBeulich@suse.com>
Cc: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
Cc: Juergen Gross <jgross@suse.com>
Cc: Kate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: linux-sparse@vger.kernel.org
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Philippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: virtualization@lists.linux-foundation.org
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: x86@kernel.org

Nadav Amit (9):
  Makefile: Prepare for using macros for inline asm
  x86: objtool: use asm macro for better compiler decisions
  x86: refcount: prevent gcc distortions
  x86: alternatives: macrofy locks for better inlining
  x86: bug: prevent gcc distortions
  x86: prevent inline distortion by paravirt ops
  x86: extable: use macros instead of inline assembly
  x86: cpufeature: use macros instead of inline assembly
  x86: jump-labels: use macros instead of inline assembly

 Makefile                               |  9 ++-
 arch/x86/Makefile                      | 11 ++-
 arch/x86/include/asm/alternative-asm.h | 20 ++++--
 arch/x86/include/asm/alternative.h     | 16 +----
 arch/x86/include/asm/asm.h             | 61 +++++++---------
 arch/x86/include/asm/bug.h             | 98 +++++++++++++++-----------
 arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeature.h      | 82 ++++++++++++---------
 arch/x86/include/asm/jump_label.h      | 65 ++++++++++-------
 arch/x86/include/asm/paravirt_types.h  | 54 +++++++-------
 arch/x86/include/asm/refcount.h        | 73 +++++++++++--------
 arch/x86/kernel/Makefile               |  6 ++
 arch/x86/kernel/macros.S               | 16 +++++
 include/linux/compiler.h               | 60 ++++++++++++----
 scripts/Kbuild.include                 |  4 +-
 14 files changed, 346 insertions(+), 229 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 arch/x86/kernel/macros.S

-- 
2.17.0

             reply	other threads:[~2018-06-04 18:36 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 21+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2018-06-04 11:21 Nadav Amit [this message]
2018-06-04 11:21 ` [PATCH v2 1/9] Makefile: Prepare for using macros for inline asm Nadav Amit
2018-06-04 11:21 ` [PATCH v2 2/9] x86: objtool: use asm macro for better compiler decisions Nadav Amit
2018-06-04 19:04   ` Josh Poimboeuf
2018-06-05  5:41   ` kbuild test robot
2018-06-04 11:21 ` [PATCH v2 3/9] x86: refcount: prevent gcc distortions Nadav Amit
2018-06-04 22:06   ` Kees Cook
2018-06-04 22:20     ` Nadav Amit
2018-06-05  8:26   ` kbuild test robot
2018-06-04 11:21 ` [PATCH v2 4/9] x86: alternatives: macrofy locks for better inlining Nadav Amit
2018-06-05  5:36   ` kbuild test robot
2018-06-05 14:07   ` kbuild test robot
2018-06-07  3:05   ` [lkp-robot] [x86] 1a39381d70: WARNING:at_kernel/locking/mutex.c:#__mutex_unlock_slowpath kernel test robot
2018-06-04 11:21 ` [PATCH v2 5/9] x86: bug: prevent gcc distortions Nadav Amit
2018-06-05  7:34   ` kbuild test robot
2018-06-04 11:21 ` [PATCH v2 6/9] x86: prevent inline distortion by paravirt ops Nadav Amit
2018-06-04 11:21 ` [PATCH v2 7/9] x86: extable: use macros instead of inline assembly Nadav Amit
2018-06-04 11:21 ` [PATCH v2 8/9] x86: cpufeature: " Nadav Amit
2018-06-04 11:21 ` [PATCH v2 9/9] x86: jump-labels: " Nadav Amit
2018-06-04 19:05 ` [PATCH v2 0/9] x86: macrofying inline asm for better compilation Josh Poimboeuf
2018-06-04 19:56   ` Nadav Amit

Reply instructions:

You may reply publicly to this message via plain-text email
using any one of the following methods:

* Save the following mbox file, import it into your mail client,
  and reply-to-all from there: mbox

  Avoid top-posting and favor interleaved quoting:
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Posting_style#Interleaved_style

* Reply using the --to, --cc, and --in-reply-to
  switches of git-send-email(1):

  git send-email \
    --in-reply-to=20180604112131.59100-1-namit@vmware.com \
    --to=namit@vmware.com \
    --cc=JBeulich@suse.com \
    --cc=akataria@vmware.com \
    --cc=gregkh@linuxfoundation.org \
    --cc=hpa@zytor.com \
    --cc=jgross@suse.com \
    --cc=jpoimboe@redhat.com \
    --cc=keescook@chromium.org \
    --cc=kstewart@linuxfoundation.org \
    --cc=linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org \
    --cc=linux-sparse@vger.kernel.org \
    --cc=mingo@redhat.com \
    --cc=peterz@infradead.org \
    --cc=pombredanne@nexb.com \
    --cc=sparse@chrisli.org \
    --cc=tglx@linutronix.de \
    --cc=torvalds@linux-foundation.org \
    --cc=virtualization@lists.linux-foundation.org \
    --cc=x86@kernel.org \
    --subject='Re: [PATCH v2 0/9] x86: macrofying inline asm for better compilation' \
    /path/to/YOUR_REPLY

  https://kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/git-send-email.html

* If your mail client supports setting the In-Reply-To header
  via mailto: links, try the mailto: link

This is a public inbox, see mirroring instructions
for how to clone and mirror all data and code used for this inbox;
as well as URLs for NNTP newsgroup(s).