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* [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc to RST
@ 2019-05-15  0:29 Tobin C. Harding
  2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 1/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Remove space before tab Tobin C. Harding
                   ` (9 more replies)
  0 siblings, 10 replies; 14+ messages in thread
From: Tobin C. Harding @ 2019-05-15  0:29 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jonathan Corbet
  Cc: Tobin C. Harding, Al Viro, Mauro Carvalho Chehab, Neil Brown,
	Randy Dunlap, linux-doc, linux-fsdevel, linux-kernel

Hi Jon,

Here is an updated version of the VFS doc conversion.  This series in no
way represents a final point for the VFS documentation rather it is a
small step towards getting VFS docs updated.  This series does not
update the content of vfs.txt, only does formatting.

Testing: the following produces no new build warnings

	make cleandocs
	make htmldocs 2> pre.stderr

	# apply this patch series

	make cleandocs
	make htmldocs 2> post.stderr
	diff pre.stderr post.stderr
	

thanks,
Tobin.


Tobin C. Harding (9):
  docs: filesystems: vfs: Remove space before tab
  docs: filesystems: vfs: Use uniform space after period.
  docs: filesystems: vfs: Use 72 character column width
  docs: filesystems: vfs: Use uniform spacing around headings
  docs: filesystems: vfs: Use correct initial heading
  docs: filesystems: vfs: Use SPDX identifier
  docs: filesystems: vfs: Fix pre-amble indentation
  docs: filesystems: vfs: Convert spaces to tabs
  docs: filesystems: vfs: Convert vfs.txt to RST

 Documentation/filesystems/index.rst |    1 +
 Documentation/filesystems/vfs.rst   | 1286 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt   | 1264 --------------------------
 3 files changed, 1287 insertions(+), 1264 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/filesystems/vfs.rst
 delete mode 100644 Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt

-- 
2.21.0


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 14+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v4 1/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Remove space before tab
  2019-05-15  0:29 [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc to RST Tobin C. Harding
@ 2019-05-15  0:29 ` Tobin C. Harding
  2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 2/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Use uniform space after period Tobin C. Harding
                   ` (8 subsequent siblings)
  9 siblings, 0 replies; 14+ messages in thread
From: Tobin C. Harding @ 2019-05-15  0:29 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jonathan Corbet
  Cc: Tobin C. Harding, Al Viro, Mauro Carvalho Chehab, Neil Brown,
	Randy Dunlap, linux-doc, linux-fsdevel, linux-kernel

Currently the file has a bunch of spaces before tabspaces.  This is a
nuisance when patching the file because they show up whenever we touch
these lines.  Let's just fix them all now in preparation for doing the
RST conversion.

Remove spaces before tabspaces.

Tested-by: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Tobin C. Harding <tobin@kernel.org>
---
 Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt | 78 +++++++++++++++----------------
 1 file changed, 39 insertions(+), 39 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt b/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
index 761c6fd24a53..637fd1756b89 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
@@ -136,7 +136,7 @@ struct file_system_type {
 	should be shut down
 
   owner: for internal VFS use: you should initialize this to THIS_MODULE in
-  	most cases.
+	most cases.
 
   next: for internal VFS use: you should initialize this to NULL
 
@@ -145,7 +145,7 @@ struct file_system_type {
 The mount() method has the following arguments:
 
   struct file_system_type *fs_type: describes the filesystem, partly initialized
-  	by the specific filesystem code
+	by the specific filesystem code
 
   int flags: mount flags
 
@@ -182,12 +182,12 @@ and provides a fill_super() callback instead. The generic variants are:
   mount_nodev: mount a filesystem that is not backed by a device
 
   mount_single: mount a filesystem which shares the instance between
-  	all mounts
+	all mounts
 
 A fill_super() callback implementation has the following arguments:
 
   struct super_block *sb: the superblock structure. The callback
-  	must initialize this properly.
+	must initialize this properly.
 
   void *data: arbitrary mount options, usually comes as an ASCII
 	string (see "Mount Options" section)
@@ -238,14 +238,14 @@ only called from a process context (i.e. not from an interrupt handler
 or bottom half).
 
   alloc_inode: this method is called by alloc_inode() to allocate memory
- 	for struct inode and initialize it.  If this function is not
- 	defined, a simple 'struct inode' is allocated.  Normally
- 	alloc_inode will be used to allocate a larger structure which
- 	contains a 'struct inode' embedded within it.
+	for struct inode and initialize it.  If this function is not
+	defined, a simple 'struct inode' is allocated.  Normally
+	alloc_inode will be used to allocate a larger structure which
+	contains a 'struct inode' embedded within it.
 
   destroy_inode: this method is called by destroy_inode() to release
-  	resources allocated for struct inode.  It is only required if
-  	->alloc_inode was defined and simply undoes anything done by
+	resources allocated for struct inode.  It is only required if
+	->alloc_inode was defined and simply undoes anything done by
 	->alloc_inode.
 
   dirty_inode: this method is called by the VFS to mark an inode dirty.
@@ -273,15 +273,15 @@ or bottom half).
 	(i.e. unmount). This is called with the superblock lock held
 
   sync_fs: called when VFS is writing out all dirty data associated with
-  	a superblock. The second parameter indicates whether the method
+	a superblock. The second parameter indicates whether the method
 	should wait until the write out has been completed. Optional.
 
   freeze_fs: called when VFS is locking a filesystem and
-  	forcing it into a consistent state.  This method is currently
-  	used by the Logical Volume Manager (LVM).
+	forcing it into a consistent state.  This method is currently
+	used by the Logical Volume Manager (LVM).
 
   unfreeze_fs: called when VFS is unlocking a filesystem and making it writable
-  	again.
+	again.
 
   statfs: called when the VFS needs to get filesystem statistics.
 
@@ -472,30 +472,30 @@ otherwise noted.
 	that.
 
   permission: called by the VFS to check for access rights on a POSIX-like
-  	filesystem.
+	filesystem.
 
 	May be called in rcu-walk mode (mask & MAY_NOT_BLOCK). If in rcu-walk
-        mode, the filesystem must check the permission without blocking or
+	mode, the filesystem must check the permission without blocking or
 	storing to the inode.
 
 	If a situation is encountered that rcu-walk cannot handle, return
 	-ECHILD and it will be called again in ref-walk mode.
 
   setattr: called by the VFS to set attributes for a file. This method
-  	is called by chmod(2) and related system calls.
+	is called by chmod(2) and related system calls.
 
   getattr: called by the VFS to get attributes of a file. This method
-  	is called by stat(2) and related system calls.
+	is called by stat(2) and related system calls.
 
   listxattr: called by the VFS to list all extended attributes for a
 	given file. This method is called by the listxattr(2) system call.
 
   update_time: called by the VFS to update a specific time or the i_version of
-  	an inode.  If this is not defined the VFS will update the inode itself
-  	and call mark_inode_dirty_sync.
+	an inode.  If this is not defined the VFS will update the inode itself
+	and call mark_inode_dirty_sync.
 
   atomic_open: called on the last component of an open.  Using this optional
-  	method the filesystem can look up, possibly create and open the file in
+	method the filesystem can look up, possibly create and open the file in
 	one atomic operation.  If it wants to leave actual opening to the
 	caller (e.g. if the file turned out to be a symlink, device, or just
 	something filesystem won't do atomic open for), it may signal this by
@@ -683,13 +683,13 @@ struct address_space_operations {
        that all succeeds, ->readpage will be called again.
 
   writepages: called by the VM to write out pages associated with the
-  	address_space object.  If wbc->sync_mode is WBC_SYNC_ALL, then
-  	the writeback_control will specify a range of pages that must be
-  	written out.  If it is WBC_SYNC_NONE, then a nr_to_write is given
+	address_space object.  If wbc->sync_mode is WBC_SYNC_ALL, then
+	the writeback_control will specify a range of pages that must be
+	written out.  If it is WBC_SYNC_NONE, then a nr_to_write is given
 	and that many pages should be written if possible.
 	If no ->writepages is given, then mpage_writepages is used
-  	instead.  This will choose pages from the address space that are
-  	tagged as DIRTY and will pass them to ->writepage.
+	instead.  This will choose pages from the address space that are
+	tagged as DIRTY and will pass them to ->writepage.
 
   set_page_dirty: called by the VM to set a page dirty.
         This is particularly needed if an address space attaches
@@ -700,11 +700,11 @@ struct address_space_operations {
         PAGECACHE_TAG_DIRTY tag in the radix tree.
 
   readpages: called by the VM to read pages associated with the address_space
-  	object. This is essentially just a vector version of
-  	readpage.  Instead of just one page, several pages are
-  	requested.
+	object. This is essentially just a vector version of
+	readpage.  Instead of just one page, several pages are
+	requested.
 	readpages is only used for read-ahead, so read errors are
-  	ignored.  If anything goes wrong, feel free to give up.
+	ignored.  If anything goes wrong, feel free to give up.
 
   write_begin:
 	Called by the generic buffered write code to ask the filesystem to
@@ -741,12 +741,12 @@ struct address_space_operations {
         that were able to be copied into pagecache.
 
   bmap: called by the VFS to map a logical block offset within object to
-  	physical block number. This method is used by the FIBMAP
-  	ioctl and for working with swap-files.  To be able to swap to
-  	a file, the file must have a stable mapping to a block
-  	device.  The swap system does not go through the filesystem
-  	but instead uses bmap to find out where the blocks in the file
-  	are and uses those addresses directly.
+	physical block number. This method is used by the FIBMAP
+	ioctl and for working with swap-files.  To be able to swap to
+	a file, the file must have a stable mapping to a block
+	device.  The swap system does not go through the filesystem
+	but instead uses bmap to find out where the blocks in the file
+	are and uses those addresses directly.
 
   invalidatepage: If a page has PagePrivate set, then invalidatepage
         will be called when part or all of the page is to be removed
@@ -806,7 +806,7 @@ struct address_space_operations {
   putback_page: Called by the VM when isolated page's migration fails.
 
   launder_page: Called before freeing a page - it writes back the dirty page. To
-  	prevent redirtying the page, it is kept locked during the whole
+	prevent redirtying the page, it is kept locked during the whole
 	operation.
 
   is_partially_uptodate: Called by the VM when reading a file through the
@@ -917,7 +917,7 @@ otherwise noted.
   unlocked_ioctl: called by the ioctl(2) system call.
 
   compat_ioctl: called by the ioctl(2) system call when 32 bit system calls
- 	 are used on 64 bit kernels.
+	 are used on 64 bit kernels.
 
   mmap: called by the mmap(2) system call
 
@@ -942,7 +942,7 @@ otherwise noted.
 	(non-blocking) mode is enabled for a file
 
   lock: called by the fcntl(2) system call for F_GETLK, F_SETLK, and F_SETLKW
-  	commands
+	commands
 
   get_unmapped_area: called by the mmap(2) system call
 
-- 
2.21.0


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 14+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v4 2/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Use uniform space after period.
  2019-05-15  0:29 [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc to RST Tobin C. Harding
  2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 1/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Remove space before tab Tobin C. Harding
@ 2019-05-15  0:29 ` Tobin C. Harding
  2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 3/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Use 72 character column width Tobin C. Harding
                   ` (7 subsequent siblings)
  9 siblings, 0 replies; 14+ messages in thread
From: Tobin C. Harding @ 2019-05-15  0:29 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jonathan Corbet
  Cc: Tobin C. Harding, Al Viro, Mauro Carvalho Chehab, Neil Brown,
	Randy Dunlap, linux-doc, linux-fsdevel, linux-kernel

Currently sometimes document has a single space after a period and
sometimes it has double.  Whichever we use it should be uniform.

Use double space after period, be uniform.

Tested-by: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Tobin C. Harding <tobin@kernel.org>
---
 Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt | 246 +++++++++++++++---------------
 1 file changed, 123 insertions(+), 123 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt b/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
index 637fd1756b89..2a610b9355e0 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
@@ -16,12 +16,12 @@ Introduction
 
 The Virtual File System (also known as the Virtual Filesystem Switch)
 is the software layer in the kernel that provides the filesystem
-interface to userspace programs. It also provides an abstraction
+interface to userspace programs.  It also provides an abstraction
 within the kernel which allows different filesystem implementations to
 coexist.
 
 VFS system calls open(2), stat(2), read(2), write(2), chmod(2) and so
-on are called from a process context. Filesystem locking is described
+on are called from a process context.  Filesystem locking is described
 in the document Documentation/filesystems/Locking.
 
 
@@ -29,37 +29,37 @@ Directory Entry Cache (dcache)
 ------------------------------
 
 The VFS implements the open(2), stat(2), chmod(2), and similar system
-calls. The pathname argument that is passed to them is used by the VFS
+calls.  The pathname argument that is passed to them is used by the VFS
 to search through the directory entry cache (also known as the dentry
-cache or dcache). This provides a very fast look-up mechanism to
-translate a pathname (filename) into a specific dentry. Dentries live
+cache or dcache).  This provides a very fast look-up mechanism to
+translate a pathname (filename) into a specific dentry.  Dentries live
 in RAM and are never saved to disc: they exist only for performance.
 
-The dentry cache is meant to be a view into your entire filespace. As
+The dentry cache is meant to be a view into your entire filespace.  As
 most computers cannot fit all dentries in the RAM at the same time,
-some bits of the cache are missing. In order to resolve your pathname
+some bits of the cache are missing.  In order to resolve your pathname
 into a dentry, the VFS may have to resort to creating dentries along
-the way, and then loading the inode. This is done by looking up the
+the way, and then loading the inode.  This is done by looking up the
 inode.
 
 
 The Inode Object
 ----------------
 
-An individual dentry usually has a pointer to an inode. Inodes are
+An individual dentry usually has a pointer to an inode.  Inodes are
 filesystem objects such as regular files, directories, FIFOs and other
 beasts.  They live either on the disc (for block device filesystems)
-or in the memory (for pseudo filesystems). Inodes that live on the
+or in the memory (for pseudo filesystems).  Inodes that live on the
 disc are copied into the memory when required and changes to the inode
-are written back to disc. A single inode can be pointed to by multiple
+are written back to disc.  A single inode can be pointed to by multiple
 dentries (hard links, for example, do this).
 
 To look up an inode requires that the VFS calls the lookup() method of
-the parent directory inode. This method is installed by the specific
-filesystem implementation that the inode lives in. Once the VFS has
+the parent directory inode.  This method is installed by the specific
+filesystem implementation that the inode lives in.  Once the VFS has
 the required dentry (and hence the inode), we can do all those boring
 things like open(2) the file, or stat(2) it to peek at the inode
-data. The stat(2) operation is fairly simple: once the VFS has the
+data.  The stat(2) operation is fairly simple: once the VFS has the
 dentry, it peeks at the inode data and passes some of it back to
 userspace.
 
@@ -69,17 +69,17 @@ The File Object
 
 Opening a file requires another operation: allocation of a file
 structure (this is the kernel-side implementation of file
-descriptors). The freshly allocated file structure is initialized with
+descriptors).  The freshly allocated file structure is initialized with
 a pointer to the dentry and a set of file operation member functions.
-These are taken from the inode data. The open() file method is then
-called so the specific filesystem implementation can do its work. You
-can see that this is another switch performed by the VFS. The file
+These are taken from the inode data.  The open() file method is then
+called so the specific filesystem implementation can do its work.  You
+can see that this is another switch performed by the VFS.  The file
 structure is placed into the file descriptor table for the process.
 
 Reading, writing and closing files (and other assorted VFS operations)
 is done by using the userspace file descriptor to grab the appropriate
 file structure, and then calling the required file structure method to
-do whatever is required. For as long as the file is open, it keeps the
+do whatever is required.  For as long as the file is open, it keeps the
 dentry in use, which in turn means that the VFS inode is still in use.
 
 
@@ -94,7 +94,7 @@ functions:
    extern int register_filesystem(struct file_system_type *);
    extern int unregister_filesystem(struct file_system_type *);
 
-The passed struct file_system_type describes your filesystem. When a
+The passed struct file_system_type describes your filesystem.  When a
 request is made to mount a filesystem onto a directory in your namespace,
 the VFS will call the appropriate mount() method for the specific
 filesystem.  New vfsmount referring to the tree returned by ->mount()
@@ -108,7 +108,7 @@ file /proc/filesystems.
 struct file_system_type
 -----------------------
 
-This describes the filesystem. As of kernel 2.6.39, the following
+This describes the filesystem.  As of kernel 2.6.39, the following
 members are defined:
 
 struct file_system_type {
@@ -170,12 +170,12 @@ point of view is a reference to dentry at the root of (sub)tree to
 be attached; creation of new superblock is a common side effect.
 
 The most interesting member of the superblock structure that the
-mount() method fills in is the "s_op" field. This is a pointer to
+mount() method fills in is the "s_op" field.  This is a pointer to
 a "struct super_operations" which describes the next level of the
 filesystem implementation.
 
 Usually, a filesystem uses one of the generic mount() implementations
-and provides a fill_super() callback instead. The generic variants are:
+and provides a fill_super() callback instead.  The generic variants are:
 
   mount_bdev: mount a filesystem residing on a block device
 
@@ -186,7 +186,7 @@ and provides a fill_super() callback instead. The generic variants are:
 
 A fill_super() callback implementation has the following arguments:
 
-  struct super_block *sb: the superblock structure. The callback
+  struct super_block *sb: the superblock structure.  The callback
 	must initialize this properly.
 
   void *data: arbitrary mount options, usually comes as an ASCII
@@ -205,7 +205,7 @@ struct super_operations
 -----------------------
 
 This describes how the VFS can manipulate the superblock of your
-filesystem. As of kernel 2.6.22, the following members are defined:
+filesystem.  As of kernel 2.6.22, the following members are defined:
 
 struct super_operations {
         struct inode *(*alloc_inode)(struct super_block *sb);
@@ -233,7 +233,7 @@ struct super_operations {
 };
 
 All methods are called without any locks being held, unless otherwise
-noted. This means that most methods can block safely. All methods are
+noted.  This means that most methods can block safely.  All methods are
 only called from a process context (i.e. not from an interrupt handler
 or bottom half).
 
@@ -270,11 +270,11 @@ or bottom half).
   delete_inode: called when the VFS wants to delete an inode
 
   put_super: called when the VFS wishes to free the superblock
-	(i.e. unmount). This is called with the superblock lock held
+	(i.e. unmount).  This is called with the superblock lock held
 
   sync_fs: called when VFS is writing out all dirty data associated with
-	a superblock. The second parameter indicates whether the method
-	should wait until the write out has been completed. Optional.
+	a superblock.  The second parameter indicates whether the method
+	should wait until the write out has been completed.  Optional.
 
   freeze_fs: called when VFS is locking a filesystem and
 	forcing it into a consistent state.  This method is currently
@@ -285,10 +285,10 @@ or bottom half).
 
   statfs: called when the VFS needs to get filesystem statistics.
 
-  remount_fs: called when the filesystem is remounted. This is called
+  remount_fs: called when the filesystem is remounted.  This is called
 	with the kernel lock held
 
-  clear_inode: called then the VFS clears the inode. Optional
+  clear_inode: called then the VFS clears the inode.  Optional
 
   umount_begin: called when the VFS is unmounting a filesystem.
 
@@ -309,17 +309,17 @@ or bottom half).
 	implement ->nr_cached_objects for it to be called correctly.
 
 	We can't do anything with any errors that the filesystem might
-	encountered, hence the void return type. This will never be called if
+	encountered, hence the void return type.  This will never be called if
 	the VM is trying to reclaim under GFP_NOFS conditions, hence this
 	method does not need to handle that situation itself.
 
 	Implementations must include conditional reschedule calls inside any
-	scanning loop that is done. This allows the VFS to determine
+	scanning loop that is done.  This allows the VFS to determine
 	appropriate scan batch sizes without having to worry about whether
 	implementations will cause holdoff problems due to large scan batch
 	sizes.
 
-Whoever sets up the inode is responsible for filling in the "i_op" field. This
+Whoever sets up the inode is responsible for filling in the "i_op" field.  This
 is a pointer to a "struct inode_operations" which describes the methods that
 can be performed on individual inodes.
 
@@ -363,7 +363,7 @@ struct inode_operations
 -----------------------
 
 This describes how the VFS can manipulate an inode in your
-filesystem. As of kernel 2.6.22, the following members are defined:
+filesystem.  As of kernel 2.6.22, the following members are defined:
 
 struct inode_operations {
 	int (*create) (struct inode *,struct dentry *, umode_t, bool);
@@ -393,19 +393,19 @@ struct inode_operations {
 Again, all methods are called without any locks being held, unless
 otherwise noted.
 
-  create: called by the open(2) and creat(2) system calls. Only
-	required if you want to support regular files. The dentry you
+  create: called by the open(2) and creat(2) system calls.  Only
+	required if you want to support regular files.  The dentry you
 	get should not have an inode (i.e. it should be a negative
-	dentry). Here you will probably call d_instantiate() with the
+	dentry).  Here you will probably call d_instantiate() with the
 	dentry and the newly created inode
 
   lookup: called when the VFS needs to look up an inode in a parent
-	directory. The name to look for is found in the dentry. This
+	directory.  The name to look for is found in the dentry.  This
 	method must call d_add() to insert the found inode into the
-	dentry. The "i_count" field in the inode structure should be
-	incremented. If the named inode does not exist a NULL inode
+	dentry.  The "i_count" field in the inode structure should be
+	incremented.  If the named inode does not exist a NULL inode
 	should be inserted into the dentry (this is called a negative
-	dentry). Returning an error code from this routine must only
+	dentry).  Returning an error code from this routine must only
 	be done on a real error, otherwise creating inodes with system
 	calls like create(2), mknod(2), mkdir(2) and so on will fail.
 	If you wish to overload the dentry methods then you should
@@ -413,27 +413,27 @@ otherwise noted.
 	to a struct "dentry_operations".
 	This method is called with the directory inode semaphore held
 
-  link: called by the link(2) system call. Only required if you want
-	to support hard links. You will probably need to call
+  link: called by the link(2) system call.  Only required if you want
+	to support hard links.  You will probably need to call
 	d_instantiate() just as you would in the create() method
 
-  unlink: called by the unlink(2) system call. Only required if you
+  unlink: called by the unlink(2) system call.  Only required if you
 	want to support deleting inodes
 
-  symlink: called by the symlink(2) system call. Only required if you
-	want to support symlinks. You will probably need to call
+  symlink: called by the symlink(2) system call.  Only required if you
+	want to support symlinks.  You will probably need to call
 	d_instantiate() just as you would in the create() method
 
-  mkdir: called by the mkdir(2) system call. Only required if you want
-	to support creating subdirectories. You will probably need to
+  mkdir: called by the mkdir(2) system call.  Only required if you want
+	to support creating subdirectories.  You will probably need to
 	call d_instantiate() just as you would in the create() method
 
-  rmdir: called by the rmdir(2) system call. Only required if you want
+  rmdir: called by the rmdir(2) system call.  Only required if you want
 	to support deleting subdirectories
 
   mknod: called by the mknod(2) system call to create a device (char,
-	block) inode or a named pipe (FIFO) or socket. Only required
-	if you want to support creating these types of inodes. You
+	block) inode or a named pipe (FIFO) or socket.  Only required
+	if you want to support creating these types of inodes.  You
 	will probably need to call d_instantiate() just as you would
 	in the create() method
 
@@ -474,21 +474,21 @@ otherwise noted.
   permission: called by the VFS to check for access rights on a POSIX-like
 	filesystem.
 
-	May be called in rcu-walk mode (mask & MAY_NOT_BLOCK). If in rcu-walk
-	mode, the filesystem must check the permission without blocking or
+	May be called in rcu-walk mode (mask & MAY_NOT_BLOCK).  If in rcu-walk
+        mode, the filesystem must check the permission without blocking or
 	storing to the inode.
 
 	If a situation is encountered that rcu-walk cannot handle, return
 	-ECHILD and it will be called again in ref-walk mode.
 
-  setattr: called by the VFS to set attributes for a file. This method
+  setattr: called by the VFS to set attributes for a file.  This method
 	is called by chmod(2) and related system calls.
 
-  getattr: called by the VFS to get attributes of a file. This method
+  getattr: called by the VFS to get attributes of a file.  This method
 	is called by stat(2) and related system calls.
 
   listxattr: called by the VFS to list all extended attributes for a
-	given file. This method is called by the listxattr(2) system call.
+	given file.  This method is called by the listxattr(2) system call.
 
   update_time: called by the VFS to update a specific time or the i_version of
 	an inode.  If this is not defined the VFS will update the inode itself
@@ -526,7 +526,7 @@ The first can be used independently to the others.  The VM can try to
 either write dirty pages in order to clean them, or release clean
 pages in order to reuse them.  To do this it can call the ->writepage
 method on dirty pages, and ->releasepage on clean pages with
-PagePrivate set. Clean pages without PagePrivate and with no external
+PagePrivate set.  Clean pages without PagePrivate and with no external
 references will be released without notice being given to the
 address_space.
 
@@ -534,7 +534,7 @@ To achieve this functionality, pages need to be placed on an LRU with
 lru_cache_add and mark_page_active needs to be called whenever the
 page is used.
 
-Pages are normally kept in a radix tree index by ->index. This tree
+Pages are normally kept in a radix tree index by ->index.  This tree
 maintains information about the PG_Dirty and PG_Writeback status of
 each page, so that pages with either of these flags can be found
 quickly.
@@ -620,7 +620,7 @@ struct address_space_operations
 -------------------------------
 
 This describes how the VFS can manipulate mapping of a file to page cache in
-your filesystem. The following members are defined:
+your filesystem.  The following members are defined:
 
 struct address_space_operations {
 	int (*writepage)(struct page *page, struct writeback_control *wbc);
@@ -700,7 +700,7 @@ struct address_space_operations {
         PAGECACHE_TAG_DIRTY tag in the radix tree.
 
   readpages: called by the VM to read pages associated with the address_space
-	object. This is essentially just a vector version of
+	object.  This is essentially just a vector version of
 	readpage.  Instead of just one page, several pages are
 	requested.
 	readpages is only used for read-ahead, so read errors are
@@ -708,7 +708,7 @@ struct address_space_operations {
 
   write_begin:
 	Called by the generic buffered write code to ask the filesystem to
-	prepare to write len bytes at the given offset in the file. The
+	prepare to write len bytes at the given offset in the file.  The
 	address_space should check that the write will be able to complete,
 	by allocating space if necessary and doing any other internal
 	housekeeping.  If the write will update parts of any basic-blocks on
@@ -731,7 +731,7 @@ struct address_space_operations {
 	which case write_end is not called.
 
   write_end: After a successful write_begin, and data copy, write_end must
-        be called. len is the original len passed to write_begin, and copied
+        be called.  len is the original len passed to write_begin, and copied
         is the amount that was able to be copied.
 
         The filesystem must take care of unlocking the page and releasing it
@@ -741,7 +741,7 @@ struct address_space_operations {
         that were able to be copied into pagecache.
 
   bmap: called by the VFS to map a logical block offset within object to
-	physical block number. This method is used by the FIBMAP
+	physical block number.  This method is used by the FIBMAP
 	ioctl and for working with swap-files.  To be able to swap to
 	a file, the file must have a stable mapping to a block
 	device.  The swap system does not go through the filesystem
@@ -753,7 +753,7 @@ struct address_space_operations {
 	from the address space.  This generally corresponds to either a
 	truncation, punch hole  or a complete invalidation of the address
 	space (in the latter case 'offset' will always be 0 and 'length'
-	will be PAGE_SIZE). Any private data associated with the page
+	will be PAGE_SIZE).  Any private data associated with the page
 	should be updated to reflect this truncation.  If offset is 0 and
 	length is PAGE_SIZE, then the private data should be released,
 	because the page must be able to be completely discarded.  This may
@@ -763,7 +763,7 @@ struct address_space_operations {
   releasepage: releasepage is called on PagePrivate pages to indicate
         that the page should be freed if possible.  ->releasepage
         should remove any private data from the page and clear the
-        PagePrivate flag. If releasepage() fails for some reason, it must
+        PagePrivate flag.  If releasepage() fails for some reason, it must
 	indicate failure with a 0 return value.
 	releasepage() is used in two distinct though related cases.  The
 	first is when the VM finds a clean page with no active users and
@@ -783,7 +783,7 @@ struct address_space_operations {
 
   freepage: freepage is called once the page is no longer visible in
         the page cache in order to allow the cleanup of any private
-	data. Since it may be called by the memory reclaimer, it
+	data.  Since it may be called by the memory reclaimer, it
 	should not assume that the original address_space mapping still
 	exists, and it should not block.
 
@@ -805,32 +805,32 @@ struct address_space_operations {
 
   putback_page: Called by the VM when isolated page's migration fails.
 
-  launder_page: Called before freeing a page - it writes back the dirty page. To
+  launder_page: Called before freeing a page - it writes back the dirty page.  To
 	prevent redirtying the page, it is kept locked during the whole
 	operation.
 
   is_partially_uptodate: Called by the VM when reading a file through the
-	pagecache when the underlying blocksize != pagesize. If the required
+	pagecache when the underlying blocksize != pagesize.  If the required
 	block is up to date then the read can complete without needing the IO
 	to bring the whole page up to date.
 
   is_dirty_writeback: Called by the VM when attempting to reclaim a page.
 	The VM uses dirty and writeback information to determine if it needs
-	to stall to allow flushers a chance to complete some IO. Ordinarily
+	to stall to allow flushers a chance to complete some IO.  Ordinarily
 	it can use PageDirty and PageWriteback but some filesystems have
 	more complex state (unstable pages in NFS prevent reclaim) or
-	do not set those flags due to locking problems. This callback
+	do not set those flags due to locking problems.  This callback
 	allows a filesystem to indicate to the VM if a page should be
 	treated as dirty or writeback for the purposes of stalling.
 
   error_remove_page: normally set to generic_error_remove_page if truncation
-	is ok for this address space. Used for memory failure handling.
+	is ok for this address space.  Used for memory failure handling.
 	Setting this implies you deal with pages going away under you,
 	unless you have them locked or reference counts increased.
 
   swap_activate: Called when swapon is used on a file to allocate
 	space if necessary and pin the block lookup information in
-	memory. A return value of zero indicates success,
+	memory.  A return value of zero indicates success,
 	in which case this file can be used to back swapspace.
 
   swap_deactivate: Called during swapoff on files where swap_activate
@@ -840,14 +840,14 @@ struct address_space_operations {
 The File Object
 ===============
 
-A file object represents a file opened by a process. This is also known
+A file object represents a file opened by a process.  This is also known
 as an "open file description" in POSIX parlance.
 
 
 struct file_operations
 ----------------------
 
-This describes how the VFS can manipulate an open file. As of kernel
+This describes how the VFS can manipulate an open file.  As of kernel
 4.18, the following members are defined:
 
 struct file_operations {
@@ -912,7 +912,7 @@ otherwise noted.
 
   poll: called by the VFS when a process wants to check if there is
 	activity on this file and (optionally) go to sleep until there
-	is activity. Called by the select(2) and poll(2) system calls
+	is activity.  Called by the select(2) and poll(2) system calls
 
   unlocked_ioctl: called by the ioctl(2) system call.
 
@@ -921,13 +921,13 @@ otherwise noted.
 
   mmap: called by the mmap(2) system call
 
-  open: called by the VFS when an inode should be opened. When the VFS
-	opens a file, it creates a new "struct file". It then calls the
-	open method for the newly allocated file structure. You might
+  open: called by the VFS when an inode should be opened.  When the VFS
+	opens a file, it creates a new "struct file".  It then calls the
+	open method for the newly allocated file structure.  You might
 	think that the open method really belongs in
-	"struct inode_operations", and you may be right. I think it's
+	"struct inode_operations", and you may be right.  I think it's
 	done the way it is because it makes filesystems simpler to
-	implement. The open() method is a good place to initialize the
+	implement.  The open() method is a good place to initialize the
 	"private_data" member in the file structure if you want to point
 	to a device structure
 
@@ -935,7 +935,7 @@ otherwise noted.
 
   release: called when the last reference to an open file is closed
 
-  fsync: called by the fsync(2) system call. Also see the section above
+  fsync: called by the fsync(2) system call.  Also see the section above
 	 entitled "Handling errors during writeback".
 
   fasync: called by the fcntl(2) system call when asynchronous
@@ -950,13 +950,13 @@ otherwise noted.
 
   flock: called by the flock(2) system call
 
-  splice_write: called by the VFS to splice data from a pipe to a file. This
+  splice_write: called by the VFS to splice data from a pipe to a file.  This
 		method is used by the splice(2) system call
 
-  splice_read: called by the VFS to splice data from file to a pipe. This
+  splice_read: called by the VFS to splice data from file to a pipe.  This
 	       method is used by the splice(2) system call
 
-  setlease: called by the VFS to set or release a file lock lease. setlease
+  setlease: called by the VFS to set or release a file lock lease.  setlease
 	    implementations should call generic_setlease to record or remove
 	    the lease in the inode after setting it.
 
@@ -980,12 +980,12 @@ otherwise noted.
   fadvise: possibly called by the fadvise64() system call.
 
 Note that the file operations are implemented by the specific
-filesystem in which the inode resides. When opening a device node
+filesystem in which the inode resides.  When opening a device node
 (character or block special) most filesystems will call special
 support routines in the VFS which will locate the required device
-driver information. These support routines replace the filesystem file
+driver information.  These support routines replace the filesystem file
 operations with those for the device driver, and then proceed to call
-the new open() method for the file. This is how opening a device file
+the new open() method for the file.  This is how opening a device file
 in the filesystem eventually ends up calling the device driver open()
 method.
 
@@ -998,10 +998,10 @@ struct dentry_operations
 ------------------------
 
 This describes how a filesystem can overload the standard dentry
-operations. Dentries and the dcache are the domain of the VFS and the
-individual filesystem implementations. Device drivers have no business
-here. These methods may be set to NULL, as they are either optional or
-the VFS uses a default. As of kernel 2.6.22, the following members are
+operations.  Dentries and the dcache are the domain of the VFS and the
+individual filesystem implementations.  Device drivers have no business
+here.  These methods may be set to NULL, as they are either optional or
+the VFS uses a default.  As of kernel 2.6.22, the following members are
 defined:
 
 struct dentry_operations {
@@ -1020,10 +1020,10 @@ struct dentry_operations {
 	struct dentry *(*d_real)(struct dentry *, const struct inode *);
 };
 
-  d_revalidate: called when the VFS needs to revalidate a dentry. This
+  d_revalidate: called when the VFS needs to revalidate a dentry.  This
 	is called whenever a name look-up finds a dentry in the
-	dcache. Most local filesystems leave this as NULL, because all their
-	dentries in the dcache are valid. Network filesystems are different
+	dcache.  Most local filesystems leave this as NULL, because all their
+	dentries in the dcache are valid.  Network filesystems are different
 	since things can change on the server without the client necessarily
 	being aware of it.
 
@@ -1041,11 +1041,11 @@ struct dentry_operations {
 
  d_weak_revalidate: called when the VFS needs to revalidate a "jumped" dentry.
 	This is called when a path-walk ends at dentry that was not acquired by
-	doing a lookup in the parent directory. This includes "/", "." and "..",
+	doing a lookup in the parent directory.  This includes "/", "." and "..",
 	as well as procfs-style symlinks and mountpoint traversal.
 
 	In this case, we are less concerned with whether the dentry is still
-	fully correct, but rather that the inode is still valid. As with
+	fully correct, but rather that the inode is still valid.  As with
 	d_revalidate, most local filesystems will set this to NULL since their
 	dcache entries are always valid.
 
@@ -1053,17 +1053,17 @@ struct dentry_operations {
 
 	d_weak_revalidate is only called after leaving rcu-walk mode.
 
-  d_hash: called when the VFS adds a dentry to the hash table. The first
+  d_hash: called when the VFS adds a dentry to the hash table.  The first
 	dentry passed to d_hash is the parent directory that the name is
 	to be hashed into.
 
 	Same locking and synchronisation rules as d_compare regarding
 	what is safe to dereference etc.
 
-  d_compare: called to compare a dentry name with a given name. The first
+  d_compare: called to compare a dentry name with a given name.  The first
 	dentry is the parent of the dentry to be compared, the second is
-	the child dentry. len and name string are properties of the dentry
-	to be compared. qstr is the name to compare it with.
+	the child dentry.  len and name string are properties of the dentry
+	to be compared.  qstr is the name to compare it with.
 
 	Must be constant and idempotent, and should not take locks if
 	possible, and should not or store into the dentry.
@@ -1078,9 +1078,9 @@ struct dentry_operations {
 	"rcu-walk", ie. without any locks or references on things.
 
   d_delete: called when the last reference to a dentry is dropped and the
-	dcache is deciding whether or not to cache it. Return 1 to delete
-	immediately, or 0 to cache the dentry. Default is NULL which means to
-	always cache a reachable dentry. d_delete must be constant and
+	dcache is deciding whether or not to cache it.  Return 1 to delete
+	immediately, or 0 to cache the dentry.  Default is NULL which means to
+	always cache a reachable dentry.  d_delete must be constant and
 	idempotent.
 
   d_init: called when a dentry is allocated
@@ -1088,19 +1088,19 @@ struct dentry_operations {
   d_release: called when a dentry is really deallocated
 
   d_iput: called when a dentry loses its inode (just prior to its
-	being deallocated). The default when this is NULL is that the
-	VFS calls iput(). If you define this method, you must call
+	being deallocated).  The default when this is NULL is that the
+	VFS calls iput().  If you define this method, you must call
 	iput() yourself
 
   d_dname: called when the pathname of a dentry should be generated.
 	Useful for some pseudo filesystems (sockfs, pipefs, ...) to delay
-	pathname generation. (Instead of doing it when dentry is created,
-	it's done only when the path is needed.). Real filesystems probably
+	pathname generation.  (Instead of doing it when dentry is created,
+	it's done only when the path is needed.).  Real filesystems probably
 	dont want to use it, because their dentries are present in global
-	dcache hash, so their hash should be an invariant. As no lock is
+	dcache hash, so their hash should be an invariant.  As no lock is
 	held, d_dname() should not try to modify the dentry itself, unless
-	appropriate SMP safety is used. CAUTION : d_path() logic is quite
-	tricky. The correct way to return for example "Hello" is to put it
+	appropriate SMP safety is used.  CAUTION : d_path() logic is quite
+	tricky.  The correct way to return for example "Hello" is to put it
 	at the end of the buffer, and returns a pointer to the first char.
 	dynamic_dname() helper function is provided to take care of this.
 
@@ -1162,7 +1162,7 @@ struct dentry_operations {
 	With NULL inode the topmost real underlying dentry is returned.
 
 Each dentry has a pointer to its parent dentry, as well as a hash list
-of child dentries. Child dentries are basically like files in a
+of child dentries.  Child dentries are basically like files in a
 directory.
 
 
@@ -1175,36 +1175,36 @@ manipulate dentries:
   dget: open a new handle for an existing dentry (this just increments
 	the usage count)
 
-  dput: close a handle for a dentry (decrements the usage count). If
+  dput: close a handle for a dentry (decrements the usage count).  If
 	the usage count drops to 0, and the dentry is still in its
 	parent's hash, the "d_delete" method is called to check whether
-	it should be cached. If it should not be cached, or if the dentry
-	is not hashed, it is deleted. Otherwise cached dentries are put
+	it should be cached.  If it should not be cached, or if the dentry
+	is not hashed, it is deleted.  Otherwise cached dentries are put
 	into an LRU list to be reclaimed on memory shortage.
 
-  d_drop: this unhashes a dentry from its parents hash list. A
+  d_drop: this unhashes a dentry from its parents hash list.  A
 	subsequent call to dput() will deallocate the dentry if its
 	usage count drops to 0
 
-  d_delete: delete a dentry. If there are no other open references to
+  d_delete: delete a dentry.  If there are no other open references to
 	the dentry then the dentry is turned into a negative dentry
-	(the d_iput() method is called). If there are other
+	(the d_iput() method is called).  If there are other
 	references, then d_drop() is called instead
 
   d_add: add a dentry to its parents hash list and then calls
 	d_instantiate()
 
   d_instantiate: add a dentry to the alias hash list for the inode and
-	updates the "d_inode" member. The "i_count" member in the
-	inode structure should be set/incremented. If the inode
+	updates the "d_inode" member.  The "i_count" member in the
+	inode structure should be set/incremented.  If the inode
 	pointer is NULL, the dentry is called a "negative
-	dentry". This function is commonly called when an inode is
+	dentry".  This function is commonly called when an inode is
 	created for an existing negative dentry
 
   d_lookup: look up a dentry given its parent and path name component
 	It looks up the child of that given name from the dcache
-	hash table. If it is found, the reference count is incremented
-	and the dentry is returned. The caller must use dput()
+	hash table.  If it is found, the reference count is incremented
+	and the dentry is returned.  The caller must use dput()
 	to free the dentry when it finishes using it.
 
 Mount Options
-- 
2.21.0


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 14+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v4 3/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Use 72 character column width
  2019-05-15  0:29 [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc to RST Tobin C. Harding
  2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 1/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Remove space before tab Tobin C. Harding
  2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 2/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Use uniform space after period Tobin C. Harding
@ 2019-05-15  0:29 ` Tobin C. Harding
  2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 4/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Use uniform spacing around headings Tobin C. Harding
                   ` (6 subsequent siblings)
  9 siblings, 0 replies; 14+ messages in thread
From: Tobin C. Harding @ 2019-05-15  0:29 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jonathan Corbet
  Cc: Tobin C. Harding, Al Viro, Mauro Carvalho Chehab, Neil Brown,
	Randy Dunlap, linux-doc, linux-fsdevel, linux-kernel

In preparation for conversion to RST format use the kernels favoured
documentation column width.  If we are going to do this we might as well
do it thoroughly.  Just do the paragraphs (not the indented stuff), the
rest will be done during indentation fix up patch.

This patch is whitespace only, no textual changes.

Use 72 character column width for all paragraph sections.

Tested-by: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Tobin C. Harding <tobin@kernel.org>
---
 Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt | 198 +++++++++++++++---------------
 1 file changed, 97 insertions(+), 101 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt b/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
index 2a610b9355e0..14839bc84d38 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
@@ -14,15 +14,14 @@
 Introduction
 ============
 
-The Virtual File System (also known as the Virtual Filesystem Switch)
-is the software layer in the kernel that provides the filesystem
-interface to userspace programs.  It also provides an abstraction
-within the kernel which allows different filesystem implementations to
-coexist.
+The Virtual File System (also known as the Virtual Filesystem Switch) is
+the software layer in the kernel that provides the filesystem interface
+to userspace programs.  It also provides an abstraction within the
+kernel which allows different filesystem implementations to coexist.
 
-VFS system calls open(2), stat(2), read(2), write(2), chmod(2) and so
-on are called from a process context.  Filesystem locking is described
-in the document Documentation/filesystems/Locking.
+VFS system calls open(2), stat(2), read(2), write(2), chmod(2) and so on
+are called from a process context.  Filesystem locking is described in
+the document Documentation/filesystems/Locking.
 
 
 Directory Entry Cache (dcache)
@@ -36,11 +35,10 @@ translate a pathname (filename) into a specific dentry.  Dentries live
 in RAM and are never saved to disc: they exist only for performance.
 
 The dentry cache is meant to be a view into your entire filespace.  As
-most computers cannot fit all dentries in the RAM at the same time,
-some bits of the cache are missing.  In order to resolve your pathname
-into a dentry, the VFS may have to resort to creating dentries along
-the way, and then loading the inode.  This is done by looking up the
-inode.
+most computers cannot fit all dentries in the RAM at the same time, some
+bits of the cache are missing.  In order to resolve your pathname into a
+dentry, the VFS may have to resort to creating dentries along the way,
+and then loading the inode.  This is done by looking up the inode.
 
 
 The Inode Object
@@ -48,33 +46,32 @@ The Inode Object
 
 An individual dentry usually has a pointer to an inode.  Inodes are
 filesystem objects such as regular files, directories, FIFOs and other
-beasts.  They live either on the disc (for block device filesystems)
-or in the memory (for pseudo filesystems).  Inodes that live on the
-disc are copied into the memory when required and changes to the inode
-are written back to disc.  A single inode can be pointed to by multiple
+beasts.  They live either on the disc (for block device filesystems) or
+in the memory (for pseudo filesystems).  Inodes that live on the disc
+are copied into the memory when required and changes to the inode are
+written back to disc.  A single inode can be pointed to by multiple
 dentries (hard links, for example, do this).
 
 To look up an inode requires that the VFS calls the lookup() method of
 the parent directory inode.  This method is installed by the specific
-filesystem implementation that the inode lives in.  Once the VFS has
-the required dentry (and hence the inode), we can do all those boring
-things like open(2) the file, or stat(2) it to peek at the inode
-data.  The stat(2) operation is fairly simple: once the VFS has the
-dentry, it peeks at the inode data and passes some of it back to
-userspace.
+filesystem implementation that the inode lives in.  Once the VFS has the
+required dentry (and hence the inode), we can do all those boring things
+like open(2) the file, or stat(2) it to peek at the inode data.  The
+stat(2) operation is fairly simple: once the VFS has the dentry, it
+peeks at the inode data and passes some of it back to userspace.
 
 
 The File Object
 ---------------
 
 Opening a file requires another operation: allocation of a file
-structure (this is the kernel-side implementation of file
-descriptors).  The freshly allocated file structure is initialized with
-a pointer to the dentry and a set of file operation member functions.
-These are taken from the inode data.  The open() file method is then
-called so the specific filesystem implementation can do its work.  You
-can see that this is another switch performed by the VFS.  The file
-structure is placed into the file descriptor table for the process.
+structure (this is the kernel-side implementation of file descriptors).
+The freshly allocated file structure is initialized with a pointer to
+the dentry and a set of file operation member functions.  These are
+taken from the inode data.  The open() file method is then called so the
+specific filesystem implementation can do its work.  You can see that
+this is another switch performed by the VFS.  The file structure is
+placed into the file descriptor table for the process.
 
 Reading, writing and closing files (and other assorted VFS operations)
 is done by using the userspace file descriptor to grab the appropriate
@@ -95,11 +92,12 @@ functions:
    extern int unregister_filesystem(struct file_system_type *);
 
 The passed struct file_system_type describes your filesystem.  When a
-request is made to mount a filesystem onto a directory in your namespace,
-the VFS will call the appropriate mount() method for the specific
-filesystem.  New vfsmount referring to the tree returned by ->mount()
-will be attached to the mountpoint, so that when pathname resolution
-reaches the mountpoint it will jump into the root of that vfsmount.
+request is made to mount a filesystem onto a directory in your
+namespace, the VFS will call the appropriate mount() method for the
+specific filesystem.  New vfsmount referring to the tree returned by
+->mount() will be attached to the mountpoint, so that when pathname
+resolution reaches the mountpoint it will jump into the root of that
+vfsmount.
 
 You can see all filesystems that are registered to the kernel in the
 file /proc/filesystems.
@@ -158,21 +156,21 @@ The mount() method must return the root dentry of the tree requested by
 caller.  An active reference to its superblock must be grabbed and the
 superblock must be locked.  On failure it should return ERR_PTR(error).
 
-The arguments match those of mount(2) and their interpretation
-depends on filesystem type.  E.g. for block filesystems, dev_name is
-interpreted as block device name, that device is opened and if it
-contains a suitable filesystem image the method creates and initializes
-struct super_block accordingly, returning its root dentry to caller.
+The arguments match those of mount(2) and their interpretation depends
+on filesystem type.  E.g. for block filesystems, dev_name is interpreted
+as block device name, that device is opened and if it contains a
+suitable filesystem image the method creates and initializes struct
+super_block accordingly, returning its root dentry to caller.
 
 ->mount() may choose to return a subtree of existing filesystem - it
 doesn't have to create a new one.  The main result from the caller's
-point of view is a reference to dentry at the root of (sub)tree to
-be attached; creation of new superblock is a common side effect.
+point of view is a reference to dentry at the root of (sub)tree to be
+attached; creation of new superblock is a common side effect.
 
-The most interesting member of the superblock structure that the
-mount() method fills in is the "s_op" field.  This is a pointer to
-a "struct super_operations" which describes the next level of the
-filesystem implementation.
+The most interesting member of the superblock structure that the mount()
+method fills in is the "s_op" field.  This is a pointer to a "struct
+super_operations" which describes the next level of the filesystem
+implementation.
 
 Usually, a filesystem uses one of the generic mount() implementations
 and provides a fill_super() callback instead.  The generic variants are:
@@ -319,16 +317,16 @@ or bottom half).
 	implementations will cause holdoff problems due to large scan batch
 	sizes.
 
-Whoever sets up the inode is responsible for filling in the "i_op" field.  This
-is a pointer to a "struct inode_operations" which describes the methods that
-can be performed on individual inodes.
+Whoever sets up the inode is responsible for filling in the "i_op"
+field.  This is a pointer to a "struct inode_operations" which describes
+the methods that can be performed on individual inodes.
 
 struct xattr_handlers
 ---------------------
 
 On filesystems that support extended attributes (xattrs), the s_xattr
-superblock field points to a NULL-terminated array of xattr handlers.  Extended
-attributes are name:value pairs.
+superblock field points to a NULL-terminated array of xattr handlers.
+Extended attributes are name:value pairs.
 
   name: Indicates that the handler matches attributes with the specified name
 	(such as "system.posix_acl_access"); the prefix field must be NULL.
@@ -348,9 +346,9 @@ attributes are name:value pairs.
 	attribute.  This method is called by the the setxattr(2) and
 	removexattr(2) system calls.
 
-When none of the xattr handlers of a filesystem match the specified attribute
-name or when a filesystem doesn't support extended attributes, the various
-*xattr(2) system calls return -EOPNOTSUPP.
+When none of the xattr handlers of a filesystem match the specified
+attribute name or when a filesystem doesn't support extended attributes,
+the various *xattr(2) system calls return -EOPNOTSUPP.
 
 
 The Inode Object
@@ -362,8 +360,8 @@ An inode object represents an object within the filesystem.
 struct inode_operations
 -----------------------
 
-This describes how the VFS can manipulate an inode in your
-filesystem.  As of kernel 2.6.22, the following members are defined:
+This describes how the VFS can manipulate an inode in your filesystem.
+As of kernel 2.6.22, the following members are defined:
 
 struct inode_operations {
 	int (*create) (struct inode *,struct dentry *, umode_t, bool);
@@ -513,42 +511,40 @@ The Address Space Object
 ========================
 
 The address space object is used to group and manage pages in the page
-cache.  It can be used to keep track of the pages in a file (or
-anything else) and also track the mapping of sections of the file into
-process address spaces.
+cache.  It can be used to keep track of the pages in a file (or anything
+else) and also track the mapping of sections of the file into process
+address spaces.
 
 There are a number of distinct yet related services that an
-address-space can provide.  These include communicating memory
-pressure, page lookup by address, and keeping track of pages tagged as
-Dirty or Writeback.
+address-space can provide.  These include communicating memory pressure,
+page lookup by address, and keeping track of pages tagged as Dirty or
+Writeback.
 
 The first can be used independently to the others.  The VM can try to
-either write dirty pages in order to clean them, or release clean
-pages in order to reuse them.  To do this it can call the ->writepage
-method on dirty pages, and ->releasepage on clean pages with
-PagePrivate set.  Clean pages without PagePrivate and with no external
-references will be released without notice being given to the
-address_space.
+either write dirty pages in order to clean them, or release clean pages
+in order to reuse them.  To do this it can call the ->writepage method
+on dirty pages, and ->releasepage on clean pages with PagePrivate set.
+Clean pages without PagePrivate and with no external references will be
+released without notice being given to the address_space.
 
 To achieve this functionality, pages need to be placed on an LRU with
-lru_cache_add and mark_page_active needs to be called whenever the
-page is used.
+lru_cache_add and mark_page_active needs to be called whenever the page
+is used.
 
 Pages are normally kept in a radix tree index by ->index.  This tree
-maintains information about the PG_Dirty and PG_Writeback status of
-each page, so that pages with either of these flags can be found
-quickly.
+maintains information about the PG_Dirty and PG_Writeback status of each
+page, so that pages with either of these flags can be found quickly.
 
 The Dirty tag is primarily used by mpage_writepages - the default
 ->writepages method.  It uses the tag to find dirty pages to call
 ->writepage on.  If mpage_writepages is not used (i.e. the address
-provides its own ->writepages) , the PAGECACHE_TAG_DIRTY tag is
-almost unused.  write_inode_now and sync_inode do use it (through
+provides its own ->writepages) , the PAGECACHE_TAG_DIRTY tag is almost
+unused.  write_inode_now and sync_inode do use it (through
 __sync_single_inode) to check if ->writepages has been successful in
 writing out the whole address_space.
 
-The Writeback tag is used by filemap*wait* and sync_page* functions,
-via filemap_fdatawait_range, to wait for all writeback to complete.
+The Writeback tag is used by filemap*wait* and sync_page* functions, via
+filemap_fdatawait_range, to wait for all writeback to complete.
 
 An address_space handler may attach extra information to a page,
 typically using the 'private' field in the 'struct page'.  If such
@@ -558,25 +554,24 @@ handler to deal with that data.
 
 An address space acts as an intermediate between storage and
 application.  Data is read into the address space a whole page at a
-time, and provided to the application either by copying of the page,
-or by memory-mapping the page.
-Data is written into the address space by the application, and then
-written-back to storage typically in whole pages, however the
-address_space has finer control of write sizes.
+time, and provided to the application either by copying of the page, or
+by memory-mapping the page.  Data is written into the address space by
+the application, and then written-back to storage typically in whole
+pages, however the address_space has finer control of write sizes.
 
 The read process essentially only requires 'readpage'.  The write
 process is more complicated and uses write_begin/write_end or
-set_page_dirty to write data into the address_space, and writepage
-and writepages to writeback data to storage.
+set_page_dirty to write data into the address_space, and writepage and
+writepages to writeback data to storage.
 
 Adding and removing pages to/from an address_space is protected by the
 inode's i_mutex.
 
 When data is written to a page, the PG_Dirty flag should be set.  It
 typically remains set until writepage asks for it to be written.  This
-should clear PG_Dirty and set PG_Writeback.  It can be actually
-written at any point after PG_Dirty is clear.  Once it is known to be
-safe, PG_Writeback is cleared.
+should clear PG_Dirty and set PG_Writeback.  It can be actually written
+at any point after PG_Dirty is clear.  Once it is known to be safe,
+PG_Writeback is cleared.
 
 Writeback makes use of a writeback_control structure to direct the
 operations.  This gives the the writepage and writepages operations some
@@ -605,9 +600,10 @@ file descriptors should get back an error is not possible.
 Instead, the generic writeback error tracking infrastructure in the
 kernel settles for reporting errors to fsync on all file descriptions
 that were open at the time that the error occurred.  In a situation with
-multiple writers, all of them will get back an error on a subsequent fsync,
-even if all of the writes done through that particular file descriptor
-succeeded (or even if there were no writes on that file descriptor at all).
+multiple writers, all of them will get back an error on a subsequent
+fsync, even if all of the writes done through that particular file
+descriptor succeeded (or even if there were no writes on that file
+descriptor at all).
 
 Filesystems that wish to use this infrastructure should call
 mapping_set_error to record the error in the address_space when it
@@ -619,8 +615,8 @@ point in the stream of errors emitted by the backing device(s).
 struct address_space_operations
 -------------------------------
 
-This describes how the VFS can manipulate mapping of a file to page cache in
-your filesystem.  The following members are defined:
+This describes how the VFS can manipulate mapping of a file to page
+cache in your filesystem.  The following members are defined:
 
 struct address_space_operations {
 	int (*writepage)(struct page *page, struct writeback_control *wbc);
@@ -1227,8 +1223,8 @@ filesystems.
 Showing options
 ---------------
 
-If a filesystem accepts mount options, it must define show_options()
-to show all the currently active options.  The rules are:
+If a filesystem accepts mount options, it must define show_options() to
+show all the currently active options.  The rules are:
 
   - options MUST be shown which are not default or their values differ
     from the default
@@ -1236,14 +1232,14 @@ to show all the currently active options.  The rules are:
   - options MAY be shown which are enabled by default or have their
     default value
 
-Options used only internally between a mount helper and the kernel
-(such as file descriptors), or which only have an effect during the
-mounting (such as ones controlling the creation of a journal) are exempt
-from the above rules.
+Options used only internally between a mount helper and the kernel (such
+as file descriptors), or which only have an effect during the mounting
+(such as ones controlling the creation of a journal) are exempt from the
+above rules.
 
-The underlying reason for the above rules is to make sure, that a
-mount can be accurately replicated (e.g. umounting and mounting again)
-based on the information found in /proc/mounts.
+The underlying reason for the above rules is to make sure, that a mount
+can be accurately replicated (e.g. umounting and mounting again) based
+on the information found in /proc/mounts.
 
 Resources
 =========
-- 
2.21.0


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 14+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v4 4/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Use uniform spacing around headings
  2019-05-15  0:29 [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc to RST Tobin C. Harding
                   ` (2 preceding siblings ...)
  2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 3/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Use 72 character column width Tobin C. Harding
@ 2019-05-15  0:29 ` Tobin C. Harding
  2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 5/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Use correct initial heading Tobin C. Harding
                   ` (5 subsequent siblings)
  9 siblings, 0 replies; 14+ messages in thread
From: Tobin C. Harding @ 2019-05-15  0:29 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jonathan Corbet
  Cc: Tobin C. Harding, Al Viro, Mauro Carvalho Chehab, Neil Brown,
	Randy Dunlap, linux-doc, linux-fsdevel, linux-kernel

Currently spacing before and after headings is non-uniform.  Use two
blank lines before a heading and one after the heading.

Use uniform spacing around headings.

Tested-by: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Tobin C. Harding <tobin@kernel.org>
---
 Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt | 9 +++++++++
 1 file changed, 9 insertions(+)

diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt b/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
index 14839bc84d38..ed12d28bda62 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
@@ -321,6 +321,7 @@ Whoever sets up the inode is responsible for filling in the "i_op"
 field.  This is a pointer to a "struct inode_operations" which describes
 the methods that can be performed on individual inodes.
 
+
 struct xattr_handlers
 ---------------------
 
@@ -507,6 +508,7 @@ otherwise noted.
   tmpfile: called in the end of O_TMPFILE open().  Optional, equivalent to
 	atomically creating, opening and unlinking a file in given directory.
 
+
 The Address Space Object
 ========================
 
@@ -580,8 +582,10 @@ and the constraints under which it is being done.  It is also used to
 return information back to the caller about the result of a writepage or
 writepages request.
 
+
 Handling errors during writeback
 --------------------------------
+
 Most applications that do buffered I/O will periodically call a file
 synchronization call (fsync, fdatasync, msync or sync_file_range) to
 ensure that data written has made it to the backing store.  When there
@@ -612,6 +616,7 @@ file->fsync operation, they should call file_check_and_advance_wb_err to
 ensure that the struct file's error cursor has advanced to the correct
 point in the stream of errors emitted by the backing device(s).
 
+
 struct address_space_operations
 -------------------------------
 
@@ -1203,9 +1208,11 @@ manipulate dentries:
 	and the dentry is returned.  The caller must use dput()
 	to free the dentry when it finishes using it.
 
+
 Mount Options
 =============
 
+
 Parsing options
 ---------------
 
@@ -1220,6 +1227,7 @@ The <linux/parser.h> header defines an API that helps parse these
 options.  There are plenty of examples on how to use it in existing
 filesystems.
 
+
 Showing options
 ---------------
 
@@ -1241,6 +1249,7 @@ The underlying reason for the above rules is to make sure, that a mount
 can be accurately replicated (e.g. umounting and mounting again) based
 on the information found in /proc/mounts.
 
+
 Resources
 =========
 
-- 
2.21.0


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 14+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v4 5/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Use correct initial heading
  2019-05-15  0:29 [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc to RST Tobin C. Harding
                   ` (3 preceding siblings ...)
  2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 4/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Use uniform spacing around headings Tobin C. Harding
@ 2019-05-15  0:29 ` Tobin C. Harding
  2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 6/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Use SPDX identifier Tobin C. Harding
                   ` (4 subsequent siblings)
  9 siblings, 0 replies; 14+ messages in thread
From: Tobin C. Harding @ 2019-05-15  0:29 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jonathan Corbet
  Cc: Tobin C. Harding, Al Viro, Mauro Carvalho Chehab, Neil Brown,
	Randy Dunlap, linux-doc, linux-fsdevel, linux-kernel

Kernel RST has a preferred heading adornment scheme.  Currently all the
heading adornments follow this scheme except the document heading.

Use correct heading adornment for initial heading.

Tested-by: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Tobin C. Harding <tobin@kernel.org>
---
 Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt | 5 +++--
 1 file changed, 3 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt b/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
index ed12d28bda62..790feccca5f4 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
@@ -1,5 +1,6 @@
-
-	      Overview of the Linux Virtual File System
+=========================================
+Overview of the Linux Virtual File System
+=========================================
 
 	Original author: Richard Gooch <rgooch@atnf.csiro.au>
 
-- 
2.21.0


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 14+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v4 6/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Use SPDX identifier
  2019-05-15  0:29 [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc to RST Tobin C. Harding
                   ` (4 preceding siblings ...)
  2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 5/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Use correct initial heading Tobin C. Harding
@ 2019-05-15  0:29 ` Tobin C. Harding
  2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 7/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Fix pre-amble indentation Tobin C. Harding
                   ` (3 subsequent siblings)
  9 siblings, 0 replies; 14+ messages in thread
From: Tobin C. Harding @ 2019-05-15  0:29 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jonathan Corbet
  Cc: Tobin C. Harding, Al Viro, Mauro Carvalho Chehab, Neil Brown,
	Randy Dunlap, linux-doc, linux-fsdevel, linux-kernel

Currently the licence is indicated via a custom string.  We have SPDX
license identifiers now for this task.

Use SPDX license identifier matching current license string.

Tested-by: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Tobin C. Harding <tobin@kernel.org>
---
 Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt | 4 ++--
 1 file changed, 2 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt b/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
index 790feccca5f4..5c8358c73e30 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
@@ -1,3 +1,5 @@
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
 =========================================
 Overview of the Linux Virtual File System
 =========================================
@@ -9,8 +11,6 @@ Overview of the Linux Virtual File System
   Copyright (C) 1999 Richard Gooch
   Copyright (C) 2005 Pekka Enberg
 
-  This file is released under the GPLv2.
-
 
 Introduction
 ============
-- 
2.21.0


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 14+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v4 7/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Fix pre-amble indentation
  2019-05-15  0:29 [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc to RST Tobin C. Harding
                   ` (5 preceding siblings ...)
  2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 6/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Use SPDX identifier Tobin C. Harding
@ 2019-05-15  0:29 ` Tobin C. Harding
  2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 8/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Convert spaces to tabs Tobin C. Harding
                   ` (2 subsequent siblings)
  9 siblings, 0 replies; 14+ messages in thread
From: Tobin C. Harding @ 2019-05-15  0:29 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jonathan Corbet
  Cc: Tobin C. Harding, Al Viro, Mauro Carvalho Chehab, Neil Brown,
	Randy Dunlap, linux-doc, linux-fsdevel, linux-kernel

Currently file pre-amble contains custom indentation.  RST is not going
to like this, lets left-align the text.  Put the copyright notices in a
list in preparation for converting document to RST.

Tested-by: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Tobin C. Harding <tobin@kernel.org>
---
 Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt | 8 ++++----
 1 file changed, 4 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt b/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
index 5c8358c73e30..43b18bafbc20 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
@@ -4,12 +4,12 @@
 Overview of the Linux Virtual File System
 =========================================
 
-	Original author: Richard Gooch <rgooch@atnf.csiro.au>
+Original author: Richard Gooch <rgooch@atnf.csiro.au>
 
-		  Last updated on June 24, 2007.
+Last updated on June 24, 2007.
 
-  Copyright (C) 1999 Richard Gooch
-  Copyright (C) 2005 Pekka Enberg
+- Copyright (C) 1999 Richard Gooch
+- Copyright (C) 2005 Pekka Enberg
 
 
 Introduction
-- 
2.21.0


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 14+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v4 8/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Convert spaces to tabs
  2019-05-15  0:29 [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc to RST Tobin C. Harding
                   ` (6 preceding siblings ...)
  2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 7/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Fix pre-amble indentation Tobin C. Harding
@ 2019-05-15  0:29 ` Tobin C. Harding
  2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 9/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Convert vfs.txt to RST Tobin C. Harding
  2019-05-29 22:30 ` [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc " Jonathan Corbet
  9 siblings, 0 replies; 14+ messages in thread
From: Tobin C. Harding @ 2019-05-15  0:29 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jonathan Corbet
  Cc: Tobin C. Harding, Al Viro, Mauro Carvalho Chehab, Neil Brown,
	Randy Dunlap, linux-doc, linux-fsdevel, linux-kernel

There are bunch of places with 8 spaces, in preparation for correctly
indenting all code snippets (during conversion to RST) change these to
use tabspaces.

This patch is whitespace only.

Convert instances of 8 consecutive spaces to a single tabspace.

Signed-off-by: Tobin C. Harding <tobin@kernel.org>
---
 Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt | 124 +++++++++++++++---------------
 1 file changed, 62 insertions(+), 62 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt b/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
index 43b18bafbc20..489bbdc6a40f 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
@@ -113,12 +113,12 @@ members are defined:
 struct file_system_type {
 	const char *name;
 	int fs_flags;
-        struct dentry *(*mount) (struct file_system_type *, int,
-                       const char *, void *);
-        void (*kill_sb) (struct super_block *);
-        struct module *owner;
-        struct file_system_type * next;
-        struct list_head fs_supers;
+	struct dentry *(*mount) (struct file_system_type *, int,
+		       const char *, void *);
+	void (*kill_sb) (struct super_block *);
+	struct module *owner;
+	struct file_system_type * next;
+	struct list_head fs_supers;
 	struct lock_class_key s_lock_key;
 	struct lock_class_key s_umount_key;
 };
@@ -207,26 +207,26 @@ This describes how the VFS can manipulate the superblock of your
 filesystem.  As of kernel 2.6.22, the following members are defined:
 
 struct super_operations {
-        struct inode *(*alloc_inode)(struct super_block *sb);
-        void (*destroy_inode)(struct inode *);
-
-        void (*dirty_inode) (struct inode *, int flags);
-        int (*write_inode) (struct inode *, int);
-        void (*drop_inode) (struct inode *);
-        void (*delete_inode) (struct inode *);
-        void (*put_super) (struct super_block *);
-        int (*sync_fs)(struct super_block *sb, int wait);
-        int (*freeze_fs) (struct super_block *);
-        int (*unfreeze_fs) (struct super_block *);
-        int (*statfs) (struct dentry *, struct kstatfs *);
-        int (*remount_fs) (struct super_block *, int *, char *);
-        void (*clear_inode) (struct inode *);
-        void (*umount_begin) (struct super_block *);
-
-        int (*show_options)(struct seq_file *, struct dentry *);
-
-        ssize_t (*quota_read)(struct super_block *, int, char *, size_t, loff_t);
-        ssize_t (*quota_write)(struct super_block *, int, const char *, size_t, loff_t);
+	struct inode *(*alloc_inode)(struct super_block *sb);
+	void (*destroy_inode)(struct inode *);
+
+	void (*dirty_inode) (struct inode *, int flags);
+	int (*write_inode) (struct inode *, int);
+	void (*drop_inode) (struct inode *);
+	void (*delete_inode) (struct inode *);
+	void (*put_super) (struct super_block *);
+	int (*sync_fs)(struct super_block *sb, int wait);
+	int (*freeze_fs) (struct super_block *);
+	int (*unfreeze_fs) (struct super_block *);
+	int (*statfs) (struct dentry *, struct kstatfs *);
+	int (*remount_fs) (struct super_block *, int *, char *);
+	void (*clear_inode) (struct inode *);
+	void (*umount_begin) (struct super_block *);
+
+	int (*show_options)(struct seq_file *, struct dentry *);
+
+	ssize_t (*quota_read)(struct super_block *, int, char *, size_t, loff_t);
+	ssize_t (*quota_write)(struct super_block *, int, const char *, size_t, loff_t);
 	int (*nr_cached_objects)(struct super_block *);
 	void (*free_cached_objects)(struct super_block *, int);
 };
@@ -475,7 +475,7 @@ otherwise noted.
 	filesystem.
 
 	May be called in rcu-walk mode (mask & MAY_NOT_BLOCK).  If in rcu-walk
-        mode, the filesystem must check the permission without blocking or
+	mode, the filesystem must check the permission without blocking or
 	storing to the inode.
 
 	If a situation is encountered that rcu-walk cannot handle, return
@@ -694,12 +694,12 @@ struct address_space_operations {
 	tagged as DIRTY and will pass them to ->writepage.
 
   set_page_dirty: called by the VM to set a page dirty.
-        This is particularly needed if an address space attaches
-        private data to a page, and that data needs to be updated when
-        a page is dirtied.  This is called, for example, when a memory
+	This is particularly needed if an address space attaches
+	private data to a page, and that data needs to be updated when
+	a page is dirtied.  This is called, for example, when a memory
 	mapped page gets modified.
 	If defined, it should set the PageDirty flag, and the
-        PAGECACHE_TAG_DIRTY tag in the radix tree.
+	PAGECACHE_TAG_DIRTY tag in the radix tree.
 
   readpages: called by the VM to read pages associated with the address_space
 	object.  This is essentially just a vector version of
@@ -717,7 +717,7 @@ struct address_space_operations {
 	storage, then those blocks should be pre-read (if they haven't been
 	read already) so that the updated blocks can be written out properly.
 
-        The filesystem must return the locked pagecache page for the specified
+	The filesystem must return the locked pagecache page for the specified
 	offset, in *pagep, for the caller to write into.
 
 	It must be able to cope with short writes (where the length passed to
@@ -726,21 +726,21 @@ struct address_space_operations {
 	flags is a field for AOP_FLAG_xxx flags, described in
 	include/linux/fs.h.
 
-        A void * may be returned in fsdata, which then gets passed into
-        write_end.
+	A void * may be returned in fsdata, which then gets passed into
+	write_end.
 
-        Returns 0 on success; < 0 on failure (which is the error code), in
+	Returns 0 on success; < 0 on failure (which is the error code), in
 	which case write_end is not called.
 
   write_end: After a successful write_begin, and data copy, write_end must
-        be called.  len is the original len passed to write_begin, and copied
-        is the amount that was able to be copied.
+	be called.  len is the original len passed to write_begin, and copied
+	is the amount that was able to be copied.
 
-        The filesystem must take care of unlocking the page and releasing it
-        refcount, and updating i_size.
+	The filesystem must take care of unlocking the page and releasing it
+	refcount, and updating i_size.
 
-        Returns < 0 on failure, otherwise the number of bytes (<= 'copied')
-        that were able to be copied into pagecache.
+	Returns < 0 on failure, otherwise the number of bytes (<= 'copied')
+	that were able to be copied into pagecache.
 
   bmap: called by the VFS to map a logical block offset within object to
 	physical block number.  This method is used by the FIBMAP
@@ -751,7 +751,7 @@ struct address_space_operations {
 	are and uses those addresses directly.
 
   invalidatepage: If a page has PagePrivate set, then invalidatepage
-        will be called when part or all of the page is to be removed
+	will be called when part or all of the page is to be removed
 	from the address space.  This generally corresponds to either a
 	truncation, punch hole  or a complete invalidation of the address
 	space (in the latter case 'offset' will always be 0 and 'length'
@@ -763,47 +763,47 @@ struct address_space_operations {
 	release MUST succeed.
 
   releasepage: releasepage is called on PagePrivate pages to indicate
-        that the page should be freed if possible.  ->releasepage
-        should remove any private data from the page and clear the
-        PagePrivate flag.  If releasepage() fails for some reason, it must
+	that the page should be freed if possible.  ->releasepage
+	should remove any private data from the page and clear the
+	PagePrivate flag.  If releasepage() fails for some reason, it must
 	indicate failure with a 0 return value.
 	releasepage() is used in two distinct though related cases.  The
 	first is when the VM finds a clean page with no active users and
-        wants to make it a free page.  If ->releasepage succeeds, the
-        page will be removed from the address_space and become free.
+	wants to make it a free page.  If ->releasepage succeeds, the
+	page will be removed from the address_space and become free.
 
 	The second case is when a request has been made to invalidate
-        some or all pages in an address_space.  This can happen
-        through the fadvise(POSIX_FADV_DONTNEED) system call or by the
-        filesystem explicitly requesting it as nfs and 9fs do (when
-        they believe the cache may be out of date with storage) by
-        calling invalidate_inode_pages2().
+	some or all pages in an address_space.  This can happen
+	through the fadvise(POSIX_FADV_DONTNEED) system call or by the
+	filesystem explicitly requesting it as nfs and 9fs do (when
+	they believe the cache may be out of date with storage) by
+	calling invalidate_inode_pages2().
 	If the filesystem makes such a call, and needs to be certain
-        that all pages are invalidated, then its releasepage will
-        need to ensure this.  Possibly it can clear the PageUptodate
-        bit if it cannot free private data yet.
+	that all pages are invalidated, then its releasepage will
+	need to ensure this.  Possibly it can clear the PageUptodate
+	bit if it cannot free private data yet.
 
   freepage: freepage is called once the page is no longer visible in
-        the page cache in order to allow the cleanup of any private
+	the page cache in order to allow the cleanup of any private
 	data.  Since it may be called by the memory reclaimer, it
 	should not assume that the original address_space mapping still
 	exists, and it should not block.
 
   direct_IO: called by the generic read/write routines to perform
-        direct_IO - that is IO requests which bypass the page cache
-        and transfer data directly between the storage and the
-        application's address space.
+	direct_IO - that is IO requests which bypass the page cache
+	and transfer data directly between the storage and the
+	application's address space.
 
   isolate_page: Called by the VM when isolating a movable non-lru page.
 	If page is successfully isolated, VM marks the page as PG_isolated
 	via __SetPageIsolated.
 
   migrate_page:  This is used to compact the physical memory usage.
-        If the VM wants to relocate a page (maybe off a memory card
-        that is signalling imminent failure) it will pass a new page
+	If the VM wants to relocate a page (maybe off a memory card
+	that is signalling imminent failure) it will pass a new page
 	and an old page to this function.  migrate_page should
 	transfer any private data across and update any references
-        that it has to the page.
+	that it has to the page.
 
   putback_page: Called by the VM when isolated page's migration fails.
 
-- 
2.21.0


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 14+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v4 9/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Convert vfs.txt to RST
  2019-05-15  0:29 [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc to RST Tobin C. Harding
                   ` (7 preceding siblings ...)
  2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 8/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Convert spaces to tabs Tobin C. Harding
@ 2019-05-15  0:29 ` Tobin C. Harding
  2019-05-29 22:30 ` [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc " Jonathan Corbet
  9 siblings, 0 replies; 14+ messages in thread
From: Tobin C. Harding @ 2019-05-15  0:29 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jonathan Corbet
  Cc: Tobin C. Harding, Al Viro, Mauro Carvalho Chehab, Neil Brown,
	Randy Dunlap, linux-doc, linux-fsdevel, linux-kernel

vfs.txt is currently stale.  If we convert it to RST this is a good
first step in the process of getting the VFS documentation up to date.

This patch does the following (all as a single patch so as not to
introduce any new SPHINX build warnings)

 - Use '.. code-block:: c' for C code blocks and indent the code blocks.
 - Use double backticks for struct member descriptions.
 - Fix a couple of build warnings by guarding pointers (*) with double
   backticks .e.g  ``*ptr``.
 - Add vfs to Documentation/filesystems/index.rst

The member descriptions paragraph indentation was not touched.  It is
not pretty but these do not cause build warnings.  These descriptions
all need updating anyways so leave it as it is for now.

Signed-off-by: Tobin C. Harding <tobin@kernel.org>
---
 Documentation/filesystems/index.rst           |   1 +
 .../filesystems/{vfs.txt => vfs.rst}          | 578 +++++++++---------
 2 files changed, 298 insertions(+), 281 deletions(-)
 rename Documentation/filesystems/{vfs.txt => vfs.rst} (70%)

diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/index.rst b/Documentation/filesystems/index.rst
index 1131c34d77f6..35644840a690 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/index.rst
@@ -16,6 +16,7 @@ algorithms work.
 .. toctree::
    :maxdepth: 2
 
+   vfs
    path-lookup.rst
    api-summary
    splice
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt b/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.rst
similarity index 70%
rename from Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
rename to Documentation/filesystems/vfs.rst
index 489bbdc6a40f..3acb74bdddf6 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.rst
@@ -87,10 +87,12 @@ Registering and Mounting a Filesystem
 To register and unregister a filesystem, use the following API
 functions:
 
-   #include <linux/fs.h>
+.. code-block:: c
 
-   extern int register_filesystem(struct file_system_type *);
-   extern int unregister_filesystem(struct file_system_type *);
+	#include <linux/fs.h>
+
+	extern int register_filesystem(struct file_system_type *);
+	extern int unregister_filesystem(struct file_system_type *);
 
 The passed struct file_system_type describes your filesystem.  When a
 request is made to mount a filesystem onto a directory in your
@@ -110,47 +112,49 @@ struct file_system_type
 This describes the filesystem.  As of kernel 2.6.39, the following
 members are defined:
 
-struct file_system_type {
-	const char *name;
-	int fs_flags;
-	struct dentry *(*mount) (struct file_system_type *, int,
-		       const char *, void *);
-	void (*kill_sb) (struct super_block *);
-	struct module *owner;
-	struct file_system_type * next;
-	struct list_head fs_supers;
-	struct lock_class_key s_lock_key;
-	struct lock_class_key s_umount_key;
-};
-
-  name: the name of the filesystem type, such as "ext2", "iso9660",
+.. code-block:: c
+
+	struct file_system_operations {
+		const char *name;
+		int fs_flags;
+		struct dentry *(*mount) (struct file_system_type *, int,
+					 const char *, void *);
+		void (*kill_sb) (struct super_block *);
+		struct module *owner;
+		struct file_system_type * next;
+		struct list_head fs_supers;
+		struct lock_class_key s_lock_key;
+		struct lock_class_key s_umount_key;
+	};
+
+``name``: the name of the filesystem type, such as "ext2", "iso9660",
 	"msdos" and so on
 
-  fs_flags: various flags (i.e. FS_REQUIRES_DEV, FS_NO_DCACHE, etc.)
+``fs_flags``: various flags (i.e. FS_REQUIRES_DEV, FS_NO_DCACHE, etc.)
 
-  mount: the method to call when a new instance of this
-	filesystem should be mounted
+``mount``: the method to call when a new instance of this filesystem should
+be mounted
 
-  kill_sb: the method to call when an instance of this filesystem
+``kill_sb``: the method to call when an instance of this filesystem
 	should be shut down
 
-  owner: for internal VFS use: you should initialize this to THIS_MODULE in
+``owner``: for internal VFS use: you should initialize this to THIS_MODULE in
 	most cases.
 
-  next: for internal VFS use: you should initialize this to NULL
+``next``: for internal VFS use: you should initialize this to NULL
 
   s_lock_key, s_umount_key: lockdep-specific
 
 The mount() method has the following arguments:
 
-  struct file_system_type *fs_type: describes the filesystem, partly initialized
+``struct file_system_type *fs_type``: describes the filesystem, partly initialized
 	by the specific filesystem code
 
-  int flags: mount flags
+``int flags``: mount flags
 
-  const char *dev_name: the device name we are mounting.
+``const char *dev_name``: the device name we are mounting.
 
-  void *data: arbitrary mount options, usually comes as an ASCII
+``void *data``: arbitrary mount options, usually comes as an ASCII
 	string (see "Mount Options" section)
 
 The mount() method must return the root dentry of the tree requested by
@@ -176,22 +180,22 @@ implementation.
 Usually, a filesystem uses one of the generic mount() implementations
 and provides a fill_super() callback instead.  The generic variants are:
 
-  mount_bdev: mount a filesystem residing on a block device
+``mount_bdev``: mount a filesystem residing on a block device
 
-  mount_nodev: mount a filesystem that is not backed by a device
+``mount_nodev``: mount a filesystem that is not backed by a device
 
-  mount_single: mount a filesystem which shares the instance between
+``mount_single``: mount a filesystem which shares the instance between
 	all mounts
 
 A fill_super() callback implementation has the following arguments:
 
-  struct super_block *sb: the superblock structure.  The callback
+``struct super_block *sb``: the superblock structure.  The callback
 	must initialize this properly.
 
-  void *data: arbitrary mount options, usually comes as an ASCII
+``void *data``: arbitrary mount options, usually comes as an ASCII
 	string (see "Mount Options" section)
 
-  int silent: whether or not to be silent on error
+``int silent``: whether or not to be silent on error
 
 
 The Superblock Object
@@ -206,54 +210,56 @@ struct super_operations
 This describes how the VFS can manipulate the superblock of your
 filesystem.  As of kernel 2.6.22, the following members are defined:
 
-struct super_operations {
-	struct inode *(*alloc_inode)(struct super_block *sb);
-	void (*destroy_inode)(struct inode *);
-
-	void (*dirty_inode) (struct inode *, int flags);
-	int (*write_inode) (struct inode *, int);
-	void (*drop_inode) (struct inode *);
-	void (*delete_inode) (struct inode *);
-	void (*put_super) (struct super_block *);
-	int (*sync_fs)(struct super_block *sb, int wait);
-	int (*freeze_fs) (struct super_block *);
-	int (*unfreeze_fs) (struct super_block *);
-	int (*statfs) (struct dentry *, struct kstatfs *);
-	int (*remount_fs) (struct super_block *, int *, char *);
-	void (*clear_inode) (struct inode *);
-	void (*umount_begin) (struct super_block *);
-
-	int (*show_options)(struct seq_file *, struct dentry *);
-
-	ssize_t (*quota_read)(struct super_block *, int, char *, size_t, loff_t);
-	ssize_t (*quota_write)(struct super_block *, int, const char *, size_t, loff_t);
-	int (*nr_cached_objects)(struct super_block *);
-	void (*free_cached_objects)(struct super_block *, int);
-};
+.. code-block:: c
+
+	struct super_operations {
+		struct inode *(*alloc_inode)(struct super_block *sb);
+		void (*destroy_inode)(struct inode *);
+
+		void (*dirty_inode) (struct inode *, int flags);
+		int (*write_inode) (struct inode *, int);
+		void (*drop_inode) (struct inode *);
+		void (*delete_inode) (struct inode *);
+		void (*put_super) (struct super_block *);
+		int (*sync_fs)(struct super_block *sb, int wait);
+		int (*freeze_fs) (struct super_block *);
+		int (*unfreeze_fs) (struct super_block *);
+		int (*statfs) (struct dentry *, struct kstatfs *);
+		int (*remount_fs) (struct super_block *, int *, char *);
+		void (*clear_inode) (struct inode *);
+		void (*umount_begin) (struct super_block *);
+
+		int (*show_options)(struct seq_file *, struct dentry *);
+
+		ssize_t (*quota_read)(struct super_block *, int, char *, size_t, loff_t);
+		ssize_t (*quota_write)(struct super_block *, int, const char *, size_t, loff_t);
+		int (*nr_cached_objects)(struct super_block *);
+		void (*free_cached_objects)(struct super_block *, int);
+	};
 
 All methods are called without any locks being held, unless otherwise
 noted.  This means that most methods can block safely.  All methods are
 only called from a process context (i.e. not from an interrupt handler
 or bottom half).
 
-  alloc_inode: this method is called by alloc_inode() to allocate memory
+``alloc_inode``: this method is called by alloc_inode() to allocate memory
 	for struct inode and initialize it.  If this function is not
 	defined, a simple 'struct inode' is allocated.  Normally
 	alloc_inode will be used to allocate a larger structure which
 	contains a 'struct inode' embedded within it.
 
-  destroy_inode: this method is called by destroy_inode() to release
+``destroy_inode``: this method is called by destroy_inode() to release
 	resources allocated for struct inode.  It is only required if
 	->alloc_inode was defined and simply undoes anything done by
 	->alloc_inode.
 
-  dirty_inode: this method is called by the VFS to mark an inode dirty.
+``dirty_inode``: this method is called by the VFS to mark an inode dirty.
 
-  write_inode: this method is called when the VFS needs to write an
+``write_inode``: this method is called when the VFS needs to write an
 	inode to disc.  The second parameter indicates whether the write
 	should be synchronous or not, not all filesystems check this flag.
 
-  drop_inode: called when the last access to the inode is dropped,
+``drop_inode``: called when the last access to the inode is dropped,
 	with the inode->i_lock spinlock held.
 
 	This method should be either NULL (normal UNIX filesystem
@@ -266,43 +272,43 @@ or bottom half).
 	but does not have the races that the "force_delete()" approach
 	had. 
 
-  delete_inode: called when the VFS wants to delete an inode
+``delete_inode``: called when the VFS wants to delete an inode
 
-  put_super: called when the VFS wishes to free the superblock
+``put_super``: called when the VFS wishes to free the superblock
 	(i.e. unmount).  This is called with the superblock lock held
 
-  sync_fs: called when VFS is writing out all dirty data associated with
+``sync_fs``: called when VFS is writing out all dirty data associated with
 	a superblock.  The second parameter indicates whether the method
 	should wait until the write out has been completed.  Optional.
 
-  freeze_fs: called when VFS is locking a filesystem and
+``freeze_fs``: called when VFS is locking a filesystem and
 	forcing it into a consistent state.  This method is currently
 	used by the Logical Volume Manager (LVM).
 
-  unfreeze_fs: called when VFS is unlocking a filesystem and making it writable
+``unfreeze_fs``: called when VFS is unlocking a filesystem and making it writable
 	again.
 
-  statfs: called when the VFS needs to get filesystem statistics.
+``statfs``: called when the VFS needs to get filesystem statistics.
 
-  remount_fs: called when the filesystem is remounted.  This is called
+``remount_fs``: called when the filesystem is remounted.  This is called
 	with the kernel lock held
 
-  clear_inode: called then the VFS clears the inode.  Optional
+``clear_inode``: called then the VFS clears the inode.  Optional
 
-  umount_begin: called when the VFS is unmounting a filesystem.
+``umount_begin``: called when the VFS is unmounting a filesystem.
 
-  show_options: called by the VFS to show mount options for
+``show_options``: called by the VFS to show mount options for
 	/proc/<pid>/mounts.  (see "Mount Options" section)
 
-  quota_read: called by the VFS to read from filesystem quota file.
+``quota_read``: called by the VFS to read from filesystem quota file.
 
-  quota_write: called by the VFS to write to filesystem quota file.
+``quota_write``: called by the VFS to write to filesystem quota file.
 
-  nr_cached_objects: called by the sb cache shrinking function for the
+``nr_cached_objects``: called by the sb cache shrinking function for the
 	filesystem to return the number of freeable cached objects it contains.
 	Optional.
 
-  free_cache_objects: called by the sb cache shrinking function for the
+``free_cache_objects``: called by the sb cache shrinking function for the
 	filesystem to scan the number of objects indicated to try to free them.
 	Optional, but any filesystem implementing this method needs to also
 	implement ->nr_cached_objects for it to be called correctly.
@@ -330,27 +336,27 @@ On filesystems that support extended attributes (xattrs), the s_xattr
 superblock field points to a NULL-terminated array of xattr handlers.
 Extended attributes are name:value pairs.
 
-  name: Indicates that the handler matches attributes with the specified name
+``name``: Indicates that the handler matches attributes with the specified name
 	(such as "system.posix_acl_access"); the prefix field must be NULL.
 
-  prefix: Indicates that the handler matches all attributes with the specified
+``prefix``: Indicates that the handler matches all attributes with the specified
 	name prefix (such as "user."); the name field must be NULL.
 
-  list: Determine if attributes matching this xattr handler should be listed
+``list``: Determine if attributes matching this xattr handler should be listed
 	for a particular dentry.  Used by some listxattr implementations like
 	generic_listxattr.
 
-  get: Called by the VFS to get the value of a particular extended attribute.
+``get``: Called by the VFS to get the value of a particular extended attribute.
 	This method is called by the getxattr(2) system call.
 
-  set: Called by the VFS to set the value of a particular extended attribute.
+``set``: Called by the VFS to set the value of a particular extended attribute.
 	When the new value is NULL, called to remove a particular extended
 	attribute.  This method is called by the the setxattr(2) and
 	removexattr(2) system calls.
 
 When none of the xattr handlers of a filesystem match the specified
 attribute name or when a filesystem doesn't support extended attributes,
-the various *xattr(2) system calls return -EOPNOTSUPP.
+the various ``*xattr(2)`` system calls return -EOPNOTSUPP.
 
 
 The Inode Object
@@ -365,41 +371,43 @@ struct inode_operations
 This describes how the VFS can manipulate an inode in your filesystem.
 As of kernel 2.6.22, the following members are defined:
 
-struct inode_operations {
-	int (*create) (struct inode *,struct dentry *, umode_t, bool);
-	struct dentry * (*lookup) (struct inode *,struct dentry *, unsigned int);
-	int (*link) (struct dentry *,struct inode *,struct dentry *);
-	int (*unlink) (struct inode *,struct dentry *);
-	int (*symlink) (struct inode *,struct dentry *,const char *);
-	int (*mkdir) (struct inode *,struct dentry *,umode_t);
-	int (*rmdir) (struct inode *,struct dentry *);
-	int (*mknod) (struct inode *,struct dentry *,umode_t,dev_t);
-	int (*rename) (struct inode *, struct dentry *,
-			struct inode *, struct dentry *, unsigned int);
-	int (*readlink) (struct dentry *, char __user *,int);
-	const char *(*get_link) (struct dentry *, struct inode *,
-				 struct delayed_call *);
-	int (*permission) (struct inode *, int);
-	int (*get_acl)(struct inode *, int);
-	int (*setattr) (struct dentry *, struct iattr *);
-	int (*getattr) (const struct path *, struct kstat *, u32, unsigned int);
-	ssize_t (*listxattr) (struct dentry *, char *, size_t);
-	void (*update_time)(struct inode *, struct timespec *, int);
-	int (*atomic_open)(struct inode *, struct dentry *, struct file *,
-			unsigned open_flag, umode_t create_mode);
-	int (*tmpfile) (struct inode *, struct dentry *, umode_t);
-};
+.. code-block:: c
+
+	struct inode_operations {
+		int (*create) (struct inode *,struct dentry *, umode_t, bool);
+		struct dentry * (*lookup) (struct inode *,struct dentry *, unsigned int);
+		int (*link) (struct dentry *,struct inode *,struct dentry *);
+		int (*unlink) (struct inode *,struct dentry *);
+		int (*symlink) (struct inode *,struct dentry *,const char *);
+		int (*mkdir) (struct inode *,struct dentry *,umode_t);
+		int (*rmdir) (struct inode *,struct dentry *);
+		int (*mknod) (struct inode *,struct dentry *,umode_t,dev_t);
+		int (*rename) (struct inode *, struct dentry *,
+			       struct inode *, struct dentry *, unsigned int);
+		int (*readlink) (struct dentry *, char __user *,int);
+		const char *(*get_link) (struct dentry *, struct inode *,
+					 struct delayed_call *);
+		int (*permission) (struct inode *, int);
+		int (*get_acl)(struct inode *, int);
+		int (*setattr) (struct dentry *, struct iattr *);
+		int (*getattr) (const struct path *, struct kstat *, u32, unsigned int);
+		ssize_t (*listxattr) (struct dentry *, char *, size_t);
+		void (*update_time)(struct inode *, struct timespec *, int);
+		int (*atomic_open)(struct inode *, struct dentry *, struct file *,
+				   unsigned open_flag, umode_t create_mode);
+		int (*tmpfile) (struct inode *, struct dentry *, umode_t);
+	};
 
 Again, all methods are called without any locks being held, unless
 otherwise noted.
 
-  create: called by the open(2) and creat(2) system calls.  Only
+``create``: called by the open(2) and creat(2) system calls.  Only
 	required if you want to support regular files.  The dentry you
 	get should not have an inode (i.e. it should be a negative
 	dentry).  Here you will probably call d_instantiate() with the
 	dentry and the newly created inode
 
-  lookup: called when the VFS needs to look up an inode in a parent
+``lookup``: called when the VFS needs to look up an inode in a parent
 	directory.  The name to look for is found in the dentry.  This
 	method must call d_add() to insert the found inode into the
 	dentry.  The "i_count" field in the inode structure should be
@@ -413,31 +421,31 @@ otherwise noted.
 	to a struct "dentry_operations".
 	This method is called with the directory inode semaphore held
 
-  link: called by the link(2) system call.  Only required if you want
+``link``: called by the link(2) system call.  Only required if you want
 	to support hard links.  You will probably need to call
 	d_instantiate() just as you would in the create() method
 
-  unlink: called by the unlink(2) system call.  Only required if you
+``unlink``: called by the unlink(2) system call.  Only required if you
 	want to support deleting inodes
 
-  symlink: called by the symlink(2) system call.  Only required if you
+``symlink``: called by the symlink(2) system call.  Only required if you
 	want to support symlinks.  You will probably need to call
 	d_instantiate() just as you would in the create() method
 
-  mkdir: called by the mkdir(2) system call.  Only required if you want
+``mkdir``: called by the mkdir(2) system call.  Only required if you want
 	to support creating subdirectories.  You will probably need to
 	call d_instantiate() just as you would in the create() method
 
-  rmdir: called by the rmdir(2) system call.  Only required if you want
+``rmdir``: called by the rmdir(2) system call.  Only required if you want
 	to support deleting subdirectories
 
-  mknod: called by the mknod(2) system call to create a device (char,
+``mknod``: called by the mknod(2) system call to create a device (char,
 	block) inode or a named pipe (FIFO) or socket.  Only required
 	if you want to support creating these types of inodes.  You
 	will probably need to call d_instantiate() just as you would
 	in the create() method
 
-  rename: called by the rename(2) system call to rename the object to
+``rename``: called by the rename(2) system call to rename the object to
 	have the parent and name given by the second inode and dentry.
 
 	The filesystem must return -EINVAL for any unsupported or
@@ -451,7 +459,7 @@ otherwise noted.
 	exist; this is checked by the VFS.  Unlike plain rename,
 	source and target may be of different type.
 
-  get_link: called by the VFS to follow a symbolic link to the
+``get_link``: called by the VFS to follow a symbolic link to the
 	inode it points to.  Only required if you want to support
 	symbolic links.  This method returns the symlink body
 	to traverse (and possibly resets the current position with
@@ -465,13 +473,13 @@ otherwise noted.
 	argument.  If request can't be handled without leaving RCU mode,
 	have it return ERR_PTR(-ECHILD).
 
-  readlink: this is now just an override for use by readlink(2) for the
+``readlink``: this is now just an override for use by readlink(2) for the
 	cases when ->get_link uses nd_jump_link() or object is not in
 	fact a symlink.  Normally filesystems should only implement
 	->get_link for symlinks and readlink(2) will automatically use
 	that.
 
-  permission: called by the VFS to check for access rights on a POSIX-like
+``permission``: called by the VFS to check for access rights on a POSIX-like
 	filesystem.
 
 	May be called in rcu-walk mode (mask & MAY_NOT_BLOCK).  If in rcu-walk
@@ -481,20 +489,20 @@ otherwise noted.
 	If a situation is encountered that rcu-walk cannot handle, return
 	-ECHILD and it will be called again in ref-walk mode.
 
-  setattr: called by the VFS to set attributes for a file.  This method
+``setattr``: called by the VFS to set attributes for a file.  This method
 	is called by chmod(2) and related system calls.
 
-  getattr: called by the VFS to get attributes of a file.  This method
+``getattr``: called by the VFS to get attributes of a file.  This method
 	is called by stat(2) and related system calls.
 
-  listxattr: called by the VFS to list all extended attributes for a
+``listxattr``: called by the VFS to list all extended attributes for a
 	given file.  This method is called by the listxattr(2) system call.
 
-  update_time: called by the VFS to update a specific time or the i_version of
+``update_time``: called by the VFS to update a specific time or the i_version of
 	an inode.  If this is not defined the VFS will update the inode itself
 	and call mark_inode_dirty_sync.
 
-  atomic_open: called on the last component of an open.  Using this optional
+``atomic_open``: called on the last component of an open.  Using this optional
 	method the filesystem can look up, possibly create and open the file in
 	one atomic operation.  If it wants to leave actual opening to the
 	caller (e.g. if the file turned out to be a symlink, device, or just
@@ -506,7 +514,7 @@ otherwise noted.
 	the method must only succeed if the file didn't exist and hence FMODE_CREATED
 	shall always be set on success.
 
-  tmpfile: called in the end of O_TMPFILE open().  Optional, equivalent to
+``tmpfile``: called in the end of O_TMPFILE open().  Optional, equivalent to
 	atomically creating, opening and unlinking a file in given directory.
 
 
@@ -624,41 +632,43 @@ struct address_space_operations
 This describes how the VFS can manipulate mapping of a file to page
 cache in your filesystem.  The following members are defined:
 
-struct address_space_operations {
-	int (*writepage)(struct page *page, struct writeback_control *wbc);
-	int (*readpage)(struct file *, struct page *);
-	int (*writepages)(struct address_space *, struct writeback_control *);
-	int (*set_page_dirty)(struct page *page);
-	int (*readpages)(struct file *filp, struct address_space *mapping,
-			struct list_head *pages, unsigned nr_pages);
-	int (*write_begin)(struct file *, struct address_space *mapping,
-				loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned flags,
+.. code-block:: c
+
+	struct address_space_operations {
+		int (*writepage)(struct page *page, struct writeback_control *wbc);
+		int (*readpage)(struct file *, struct page *);
+		int (*writepages)(struct address_space *, struct writeback_control *);
+		int (*set_page_dirty)(struct page *page);
+		int (*readpages)(struct file *filp, struct address_space *mapping,
+				 struct list_head *pages, unsigned nr_pages);
+		int (*write_begin)(struct file *, struct address_space *mapping,
+				   loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned flags,
 				struct page **pagep, void **fsdata);
-	int (*write_end)(struct file *, struct address_space *mapping,
-				loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned copied,
-				struct page *page, void *fsdata);
-	sector_t (*bmap)(struct address_space *, sector_t);
-	void (*invalidatepage) (struct page *, unsigned int, unsigned int);
-	int (*releasepage) (struct page *, int);
-	void (*freepage)(struct page *);
-	ssize_t (*direct_IO)(struct kiocb *, struct iov_iter *iter);
-	/* isolate a page for migration */
-	bool (*isolate_page) (struct page *, isolate_mode_t);
-	/* migrate the contents of a page to the specified target */
-	int (*migratepage) (struct page *, struct page *);
-	/* put migration-failed page back to right list */
-	void (*putback_page) (struct page *);
-	int (*launder_page) (struct page *);
-
-	int (*is_partially_uptodate) (struct page *, unsigned long,
-					unsigned long);
-	void (*is_dirty_writeback) (struct page *, bool *, bool *);
-	int (*error_remove_page) (struct mapping *mapping, struct page *page);
-	int (*swap_activate)(struct file *);
-	int (*swap_deactivate)(struct file *);
-};
-
-  writepage: called by the VM to write a dirty page to backing store.
+		int (*write_end)(struct file *, struct address_space *mapping,
+				 loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned copied,
+				 struct page *page, void *fsdata);
+		sector_t (*bmap)(struct address_space *, sector_t);
+		void (*invalidatepage) (struct page *, unsigned int, unsigned int);
+		int (*releasepage) (struct page *, int);
+		void (*freepage)(struct page *);
+		ssize_t (*direct_IO)(struct kiocb *, struct iov_iter *iter);
+		/* isolate a page for migration */
+		bool (*isolate_page) (struct page *, isolate_mode_t);
+		/* migrate the contents of a page to the specified target */
+		int (*migratepage) (struct page *, struct page *);
+		/* put migration-failed page back to right list */
+		void (*putback_page) (struct page *);
+		int (*launder_page) (struct page *);
+
+		int (*is_partially_uptodate) (struct page *, unsigned long,
+					      unsigned long);
+		void (*is_dirty_writeback) (struct page *, bool *, bool *);
+		int (*error_remove_page) (struct mapping *mapping, struct page *page);
+		int (*swap_activate)(struct file *);
+		int (*swap_deactivate)(struct file *);
+	};
+
+``writepage``: called by the VM to write a dirty page to backing store.
       This may happen for data integrity reasons (i.e. 'sync'), or
       to free up memory (flush).  The difference can be seen in
       wbc->sync_mode.
@@ -676,7 +686,7 @@ struct address_space_operations {
 
       See the file "Locking" for more details.
 
-  readpage: called by the VM to read a page from backing store.
+``readpage``: called by the VM to read a page from backing store.
        The page will be Locked when readpage is called, and should be
        unlocked and marked uptodate once the read completes.
        If ->readpage discovers that it needs to unlock the page for
@@ -684,7 +694,7 @@ struct address_space_operations {
        In this case, the page will be relocated, relocked and if
        that all succeeds, ->readpage will be called again.
 
-  writepages: called by the VM to write out pages associated with the
+``writepages``: called by the VM to write out pages associated with the
 	address_space object.  If wbc->sync_mode is WBC_SYNC_ALL, then
 	the writeback_control will specify a range of pages that must be
 	written out.  If it is WBC_SYNC_NONE, then a nr_to_write is given
@@ -693,7 +703,7 @@ struct address_space_operations {
 	instead.  This will choose pages from the address space that are
 	tagged as DIRTY and will pass them to ->writepage.
 
-  set_page_dirty: called by the VM to set a page dirty.
+``set_page_dirty``: called by the VM to set a page dirty.
 	This is particularly needed if an address space attaches
 	private data to a page, and that data needs to be updated when
 	a page is dirtied.  This is called, for example, when a memory
@@ -701,14 +711,14 @@ struct address_space_operations {
 	If defined, it should set the PageDirty flag, and the
 	PAGECACHE_TAG_DIRTY tag in the radix tree.
 
-  readpages: called by the VM to read pages associated with the address_space
+``readpages``: called by the VM to read pages associated with the address_space
 	object.  This is essentially just a vector version of
 	readpage.  Instead of just one page, several pages are
 	requested.
 	readpages is only used for read-ahead, so read errors are
 	ignored.  If anything goes wrong, feel free to give up.
 
-  write_begin:
+``write_begin``:
 	Called by the generic buffered write code to ask the filesystem to
 	prepare to write len bytes at the given offset in the file.  The
 	address_space should check that the write will be able to complete,
@@ -718,7 +728,7 @@ struct address_space_operations {
 	read already) so that the updated blocks can be written out properly.
 
 	The filesystem must return the locked pagecache page for the specified
-	offset, in *pagep, for the caller to write into.
+	offset, in ``*pagep``, for the caller to write into.
 
 	It must be able to cope with short writes (where the length passed to
 	write_begin is greater than the number of bytes copied into the page).
@@ -732,7 +742,7 @@ struct address_space_operations {
 	Returns 0 on success; < 0 on failure (which is the error code), in
 	which case write_end is not called.
 
-  write_end: After a successful write_begin, and data copy, write_end must
+``write_end``: After a successful write_begin, and data copy, write_end must
 	be called.  len is the original len passed to write_begin, and copied
 	is the amount that was able to be copied.
 
@@ -742,7 +752,7 @@ struct address_space_operations {
 	Returns < 0 on failure, otherwise the number of bytes (<= 'copied')
 	that were able to be copied into pagecache.
 
-  bmap: called by the VFS to map a logical block offset within object to
+``bmap``: called by the VFS to map a logical block offset within object to
 	physical block number.  This method is used by the FIBMAP
 	ioctl and for working with swap-files.  To be able to swap to
 	a file, the file must have a stable mapping to a block
@@ -750,7 +760,7 @@ struct address_space_operations {
 	but instead uses bmap to find out where the blocks in the file
 	are and uses those addresses directly.
 
-  invalidatepage: If a page has PagePrivate set, then invalidatepage
+``invalidatepage``: If a page has PagePrivate set, then invalidatepage
 	will be called when part or all of the page is to be removed
 	from the address space.  This generally corresponds to either a
 	truncation, punch hole  or a complete invalidation of the address
@@ -762,7 +772,7 @@ struct address_space_operations {
 	be done by calling the ->releasepage function, but in this case the
 	release MUST succeed.
 
-  releasepage: releasepage is called on PagePrivate pages to indicate
+``releasepage``: releasepage is called on PagePrivate pages to indicate
 	that the page should be freed if possible.  ->releasepage
 	should remove any private data from the page and clear the
 	PagePrivate flag.  If releasepage() fails for some reason, it must
@@ -783,40 +793,40 @@ struct address_space_operations {
 	need to ensure this.  Possibly it can clear the PageUptodate
 	bit if it cannot free private data yet.
 
-  freepage: freepage is called once the page is no longer visible in
+``freepage``: freepage is called once the page is no longer visible in
 	the page cache in order to allow the cleanup of any private
 	data.  Since it may be called by the memory reclaimer, it
 	should not assume that the original address_space mapping still
 	exists, and it should not block.
 
-  direct_IO: called by the generic read/write routines to perform
+``direct_IO``: called by the generic read/write routines to perform
 	direct_IO - that is IO requests which bypass the page cache
 	and transfer data directly between the storage and the
 	application's address space.
 
-  isolate_page: Called by the VM when isolating a movable non-lru page.
+``isolate_page``: Called by the VM when isolating a movable non-lru page.
 	If page is successfully isolated, VM marks the page as PG_isolated
 	via __SetPageIsolated.
 
-  migrate_page:  This is used to compact the physical memory usage.
+``migrate_page``:  This is used to compact the physical memory usage.
 	If the VM wants to relocate a page (maybe off a memory card
 	that is signalling imminent failure) it will pass a new page
 	and an old page to this function.  migrate_page should
 	transfer any private data across and update any references
 	that it has to the page.
 
-  putback_page: Called by the VM when isolated page's migration fails.
+``putback_page``: Called by the VM when isolated page's migration fails.
 
-  launder_page: Called before freeing a page - it writes back the dirty page.  To
+``launder_page``: Called before freeing a page - it writes back the dirty page.  To
 	prevent redirtying the page, it is kept locked during the whole
 	operation.
 
-  is_partially_uptodate: Called by the VM when reading a file through the
+``is_partially_uptodate``: Called by the VM when reading a file through the
 	pagecache when the underlying blocksize != pagesize.  If the required
 	block is up to date then the read can complete without needing the IO
 	to bring the whole page up to date.
 
-  is_dirty_writeback: Called by the VM when attempting to reclaim a page.
+``is_dirty_writeback``: Called by the VM when attempting to reclaim a page.
 	The VM uses dirty and writeback information to determine if it needs
 	to stall to allow flushers a chance to complete some IO.  Ordinarily
 	it can use PageDirty and PageWriteback but some filesystems have
@@ -825,17 +835,17 @@ struct address_space_operations {
 	allows a filesystem to indicate to the VM if a page should be
 	treated as dirty or writeback for the purposes of stalling.
 
-  error_remove_page: normally set to generic_error_remove_page if truncation
+``error_remove_page``: normally set to generic_error_remove_page if truncation
 	is ok for this address space.  Used for memory failure handling.
 	Setting this implies you deal with pages going away under you,
 	unless you have them locked or reference counts increased.
 
-  swap_activate: Called when swapon is used on a file to allocate
+``swap_activate``: Called when swapon is used on a file to allocate
 	space if necessary and pin the block lookup information in
 	memory.  A return value of zero indicates success,
 	in which case this file can be used to back swapspace.
 
-  swap_deactivate: Called during swapoff on files where swap_activate
+``swap_deactivate``: Called during swapoff on files where swap_activate
 	was successful.
 
 
@@ -852,78 +862,80 @@ struct file_operations
 This describes how the VFS can manipulate an open file.  As of kernel
 4.18, the following members are defined:
 
-struct file_operations {
-	struct module *owner;
-	loff_t (*llseek) (struct file *, loff_t, int);
-	ssize_t (*read) (struct file *, char __user *, size_t, loff_t *);
-	ssize_t (*write) (struct file *, const char __user *, size_t, loff_t *);
-	ssize_t (*read_iter) (struct kiocb *, struct iov_iter *);
-	ssize_t (*write_iter) (struct kiocb *, struct iov_iter *);
-	int (*iopoll)(struct kiocb *kiocb, bool spin);
-	int (*iterate) (struct file *, struct dir_context *);
-	int (*iterate_shared) (struct file *, struct dir_context *);
-	__poll_t (*poll) (struct file *, struct poll_table_struct *);
-	long (*unlocked_ioctl) (struct file *, unsigned int, unsigned long);
-	long (*compat_ioctl) (struct file *, unsigned int, unsigned long);
-	int (*mmap) (struct file *, struct vm_area_struct *);
-	int (*open) (struct inode *, struct file *);
-	int (*flush) (struct file *, fl_owner_t id);
-	int (*release) (struct inode *, struct file *);
-	int (*fsync) (struct file *, loff_t, loff_t, int datasync);
-	int (*fasync) (int, struct file *, int);
-	int (*lock) (struct file *, int, struct file_lock *);
-	ssize_t (*sendpage) (struct file *, struct page *, int, size_t, loff_t *, int);
-	unsigned long (*get_unmapped_area)(struct file *, unsigned long, unsigned long, unsigned long, unsigned long);
-	int (*check_flags)(int);
-	int (*flock) (struct file *, int, struct file_lock *);
-	ssize_t (*splice_write)(struct pipe_inode_info *, struct file *, loff_t *, size_t, unsigned int);
-	ssize_t (*splice_read)(struct file *, loff_t *, struct pipe_inode_info *, size_t, unsigned int);
-	int (*setlease)(struct file *, long, struct file_lock **, void **);
-	long (*fallocate)(struct file *file, int mode, loff_t offset,
-			  loff_t len);
-	void (*show_fdinfo)(struct seq_file *m, struct file *f);
-#ifndef CONFIG_MMU
-	unsigned (*mmap_capabilities)(struct file *);
-#endif
-	ssize_t (*copy_file_range)(struct file *, loff_t, struct file *, loff_t, size_t, unsigned int);
-	loff_t (*remap_file_range)(struct file *file_in, loff_t pos_in,
-				   struct file *file_out, loff_t pos_out,
-				   loff_t len, unsigned int remap_flags);
-	int (*fadvise)(struct file *, loff_t, loff_t, int);
-};
+.. code-block:: c
+
+	struct file_operations {
+		struct module *owner;
+		loff_t (*llseek) (struct file *, loff_t, int);
+		ssize_t (*read) (struct file *, char __user *, size_t, loff_t *);
+		ssize_t (*write) (struct file *, const char __user *, size_t, loff_t *);
+		ssize_t (*read_iter) (struct kiocb *, struct iov_iter *);
+		ssize_t (*write_iter) (struct kiocb *, struct iov_iter *);
+		int (*iopoll)(struct kiocb *kiocb, bool spin);
+		int (*iterate) (struct file *, struct dir_context *);
+		int (*iterate_shared) (struct file *, struct dir_context *);
+		__poll_t (*poll) (struct file *, struct poll_table_struct *);
+		long (*unlocked_ioctl) (struct file *, unsigned int, unsigned long);
+		long (*compat_ioctl) (struct file *, unsigned int, unsigned long);
+		int (*mmap) (struct file *, struct vm_area_struct *);
+		int (*open) (struct inode *, struct file *);
+		int (*flush) (struct file *, fl_owner_t id);
+		int (*release) (struct inode *, struct file *);
+		int (*fsync) (struct file *, loff_t, loff_t, int datasync);
+		int (*fasync) (int, struct file *, int);
+		int (*lock) (struct file *, int, struct file_lock *);
+		ssize_t (*sendpage) (struct file *, struct page *, int, size_t, loff_t *, int);
+		unsigned long (*get_unmapped_area)(struct file *, unsigned long, unsigned long, unsigned long, unsigned long);
+		int (*check_flags)(int);
+		int (*flock) (struct file *, int, struct file_lock *);
+		ssize_t (*splice_write)(struct pipe_inode_info *, struct file *, loff_t *, size_t, unsigned int);
+		ssize_t (*splice_read)(struct file *, loff_t *, struct pipe_inode_info *, size_t, unsigned int);
+		int (*setlease)(struct file *, long, struct file_lock **, void **);
+		long (*fallocate)(struct file *file, int mode, loff_t offset,
+				  loff_t len);
+		void (*show_fdinfo)(struct seq_file *m, struct file *f);
+	#ifndef CONFIG_MMU
+		unsigned (*mmap_capabilities)(struct file *);
+	#endif
+		ssize_t (*copy_file_range)(struct file *, loff_t, struct file *, loff_t, size_t, unsigned int);
+		loff_t (*remap_file_range)(struct file *file_in, loff_t pos_in,
+					   struct file *file_out, loff_t pos_out,
+					   loff_t len, unsigned int remap_flags);
+		int (*fadvise)(struct file *, loff_t, loff_t, int);
+	};
 
 Again, all methods are called without any locks being held, unless
 otherwise noted.
 
-  llseek: called when the VFS needs to move the file position index
+``llseek``: called when the VFS needs to move the file position index
 
-  read: called by read(2) and related system calls
+``read``: called by read(2) and related system calls
 
-  read_iter: possibly asynchronous read with iov_iter as destination
+``read_iter``: possibly asynchronous read with iov_iter as destination
 
-  write: called by write(2) and related system calls
+``write``: called by write(2) and related system calls
 
-  write_iter: possibly asynchronous write with iov_iter as source
+``write_iter``: possibly asynchronous write with iov_iter as source
 
-  iopoll: called when aio wants to poll for completions on HIPRI iocbs
+``iopoll``: called when aio wants to poll for completions on HIPRI iocbs
 
-  iterate: called when the VFS needs to read the directory contents
+``iterate``: called when the VFS needs to read the directory contents
 
-  iterate_shared: called when the VFS needs to read the directory contents
+``iterate_shared``: called when the VFS needs to read the directory contents
 	when filesystem supports concurrent dir iterators
 
-  poll: called by the VFS when a process wants to check if there is
+``poll``: called by the VFS when a process wants to check if there is
 	activity on this file and (optionally) go to sleep until there
 	is activity.  Called by the select(2) and poll(2) system calls
 
-  unlocked_ioctl: called by the ioctl(2) system call.
+``unlocked_ioctl``: called by the ioctl(2) system call.
 
-  compat_ioctl: called by the ioctl(2) system call when 32 bit system calls
+``compat_ioctl``: called by the ioctl(2) system call when 32 bit system calls
 	 are used on 64 bit kernels.
 
-  mmap: called by the mmap(2) system call
+``mmap``: called by the mmap(2) system call
 
-  open: called by the VFS when an inode should be opened.  When the VFS
+``open``: called by the VFS when an inode should be opened.  When the VFS
 	opens a file, it creates a new "struct file".  It then calls the
 	open method for the newly allocated file structure.  You might
 	think that the open method really belongs in
@@ -933,40 +945,40 @@ otherwise noted.
 	"private_data" member in the file structure if you want to point
 	to a device structure
 
-  flush: called by the close(2) system call to flush a file
+``flush``: called by the close(2) system call to flush a file
 
-  release: called when the last reference to an open file is closed
+``release``: called when the last reference to an open file is closed
 
-  fsync: called by the fsync(2) system call.  Also see the section above
+``fsync``: called by the fsync(2) system call.  Also see the section above
 	 entitled "Handling errors during writeback".
 
-  fasync: called by the fcntl(2) system call when asynchronous
+``fasync``: called by the fcntl(2) system call when asynchronous
 	(non-blocking) mode is enabled for a file
 
-  lock: called by the fcntl(2) system call for F_GETLK, F_SETLK, and F_SETLKW
+``lock``: called by the fcntl(2) system call for F_GETLK, F_SETLK, and F_SETLKW
 	commands
 
-  get_unmapped_area: called by the mmap(2) system call
+``get_unmapped_area``: called by the mmap(2) system call
 
-  check_flags: called by the fcntl(2) system call for F_SETFL command
+``check_flags``: called by the fcntl(2) system call for F_SETFL command
 
-  flock: called by the flock(2) system call
+``flock``: called by the flock(2) system call
 
-  splice_write: called by the VFS to splice data from a pipe to a file.  This
+``splice_write``: called by the VFS to splice data from a pipe to a file.  This
 		method is used by the splice(2) system call
 
-  splice_read: called by the VFS to splice data from file to a pipe.  This
+``splice_read``: called by the VFS to splice data from file to a pipe.  This
 	       method is used by the splice(2) system call
 
-  setlease: called by the VFS to set or release a file lock lease.  setlease
+``setlease``: called by the VFS to set or release a file lock lease.  setlease
 	    implementations should call generic_setlease to record or remove
 	    the lease in the inode after setting it.
 
-  fallocate: called by the VFS to preallocate blocks or punch a hole.
+``fallocate``: called by the VFS to preallocate blocks or punch a hole.
 
-  copy_file_range: called by the copy_file_range(2) system call.
+``copy_file_range``: called by the copy_file_range(2) system call.
 
-  remap_file_range: called by the ioctl(2) system call for FICLONERANGE and
+``remap_file_range``: called by the ioctl(2) system call for FICLONERANGE and
 	FICLONE and FIDEDUPERANGE commands to remap file ranges.  An
 	implementation should remap len bytes at pos_in of the source file into
 	the dest file at pos_out.  Implementations must handle callers passing
@@ -979,7 +991,7 @@ otherwise noted.
 	set, the caller is ok with the implementation shortening the request
 	length to satisfy alignment or EOF requirements (or any other reason).
 
-  fadvise: possibly called by the fadvise64() system call.
+``fadvise``: possibly called by the fadvise64() system call.
 
 Note that the file operations are implemented by the specific
 filesystem in which the inode resides.  When opening a device node
@@ -1006,23 +1018,25 @@ here.  These methods may be set to NULL, as they are either optional or
 the VFS uses a default.  As of kernel 2.6.22, the following members are
 defined:
 
-struct dentry_operations {
-	int (*d_revalidate)(struct dentry *, unsigned int);
-	int (*d_weak_revalidate)(struct dentry *, unsigned int);
-	int (*d_hash)(const struct dentry *, struct qstr *);
-	int (*d_compare)(const struct dentry *,
-			unsigned int, const char *, const struct qstr *);
-	int (*d_delete)(const struct dentry *);
-	int (*d_init)(struct dentry *);
-	void (*d_release)(struct dentry *);
-	void (*d_iput)(struct dentry *, struct inode *);
-	char *(*d_dname)(struct dentry *, char *, int);
-	struct vfsmount *(*d_automount)(struct path *);
-	int (*d_manage)(const struct path *, bool);
-	struct dentry *(*d_real)(struct dentry *, const struct inode *);
-};
-
-  d_revalidate: called when the VFS needs to revalidate a dentry.  This
+.. code-block:: c
+
+	struct dentry_operations {
+		int (*d_revalidate)(struct dentry *, unsigned int);
+		int (*d_weak_revalidate)(struct dentry *, unsigned int);
+		int (*d_hash)(const struct dentry *, struct qstr *);
+		int (*d_compare)(const struct dentry *,
+				 unsigned int, const char *, const struct qstr *);
+		int (*d_delete)(const struct dentry *);
+		int (*d_init)(struct dentry *);
+		void (*d_release)(struct dentry *);
+		void (*d_iput)(struct dentry *, struct inode *);
+		char *(*d_dname)(struct dentry *, char *, int);
+		struct vfsmount *(*d_automount)(struct path *);
+		int (*d_manage)(const struct path *, bool);
+		struct dentry *(*d_real)(struct dentry *, const struct inode *);
+	};
+
+``d_revalidate``: called when the VFS needs to revalidate a dentry.  This
 	is called whenever a name look-up finds a dentry in the
 	dcache.  Most local filesystems leave this as NULL, because all their
 	dentries in the dcache are valid.  Network filesystems are different
@@ -1041,7 +1055,7 @@ struct dentry_operations {
 	If a situation is encountered that rcu-walk cannot handle, return
 	-ECHILD and it will be called again in ref-walk mode.
 
- d_weak_revalidate: called when the VFS needs to revalidate a "jumped" dentry.
+``_weak_revalidate``: called when the VFS needs to revalidate a "jumped" dentry.
 	This is called when a path-walk ends at dentry that was not acquired by
 	doing a lookup in the parent directory.  This includes "/", "." and "..",
 	as well as procfs-style symlinks and mountpoint traversal.
@@ -1055,14 +1069,14 @@ struct dentry_operations {
 
 	d_weak_revalidate is only called after leaving rcu-walk mode.
 
-  d_hash: called when the VFS adds a dentry to the hash table.  The first
+``d_hash``: called when the VFS adds a dentry to the hash table.  The first
 	dentry passed to d_hash is the parent directory that the name is
 	to be hashed into.
 
 	Same locking and synchronisation rules as d_compare regarding
 	what is safe to dereference etc.
 
-  d_compare: called to compare a dentry name with a given name.  The first
+``d_compare``: called to compare a dentry name with a given name.  The first
 	dentry is the parent of the dentry to be compared, the second is
 	the child dentry.  len and name string are properties of the dentry
 	to be compared.  qstr is the name to compare it with.
@@ -1079,22 +1093,22 @@ struct dentry_operations {
 	It is a tricky calling convention because it needs to be called under
 	"rcu-walk", ie. without any locks or references on things.
 
-  d_delete: called when the last reference to a dentry is dropped and the
+``d_delete``: called when the last reference to a dentry is dropped and the
 	dcache is deciding whether or not to cache it.  Return 1 to delete
 	immediately, or 0 to cache the dentry.  Default is NULL which means to
 	always cache a reachable dentry.  d_delete must be constant and
 	idempotent.
 
-  d_init: called when a dentry is allocated
+``d_init``: called when a dentry is allocated
 
-  d_release: called when a dentry is really deallocated
+``d_release``: called when a dentry is really deallocated
 
-  d_iput: called when a dentry loses its inode (just prior to its
+``d_iput``: called when a dentry loses its inode (just prior to its
 	being deallocated).  The default when this is NULL is that the
 	VFS calls iput().  If you define this method, you must call
 	iput() yourself
 
-  d_dname: called when the pathname of a dentry should be generated.
+``d_dname``: called when the pathname of a dentry should be generated.
 	Useful for some pseudo filesystems (sockfs, pipefs, ...) to delay
 	pathname generation.  (Instead of doing it when dentry is created,
 	it's done only when the path is needed.).  Real filesystems probably
@@ -1108,13 +1122,15 @@ struct dentry_operations {
 
 	Example :
 
+.. code-block:: c
+
 	static char *pipefs_dname(struct dentry *dent, char *buffer, int buflen)
 	{
 		return dynamic_dname(dentry, buffer, buflen, "pipe:[%lu]",
 				dentry->d_inode->i_ino);
 	}
 
-  d_automount: called when an automount dentry is to be traversed (optional).
+``d_automount``: called when an automount dentry is to be traversed (optional).
 	This should create a new VFS mount record and return the record to the
 	caller.  The caller is supplied with a path parameter giving the
 	automount directory to describe the automount target and the parent
@@ -1134,7 +1150,7 @@ struct dentry_operations {
 	dentry.  This is set by __d_instantiate() if S_AUTOMOUNT is set on the
 	inode being added.
 
-  d_manage: called to allow the filesystem to manage the transition from a
+``d_manage``: called to allow the filesystem to manage the transition from a
 	dentry (optional).  This allows autofs, for example, to hold up clients
 	waiting to explore behind a 'mountpoint' while letting the daemon go
 	past and construct the subtree there.  0 should be returned to let the
@@ -1152,7 +1168,7 @@ struct dentry_operations {
 	This function is only used if DCACHE_MANAGE_TRANSIT is set on the
 	dentry being transited from.
 
-  d_real: overlay/union type filesystems implement this method to return one of
+``d_real``: overlay/union type filesystems implement this method to return one of
 	the underlying dentries hidden by the overlay.  It is used in two
 	different modes:
 
@@ -1174,36 +1190,36 @@ Directory Entry Cache API
 There are a number of functions defined which permit a filesystem to
 manipulate dentries:
 
-  dget: open a new handle for an existing dentry (this just increments
+``dget``: open a new handle for an existing dentry (this just increments
 	the usage count)
 
-  dput: close a handle for a dentry (decrements the usage count).  If
+``dput``: close a handle for a dentry (decrements the usage count).  If
 	the usage count drops to 0, and the dentry is still in its
 	parent's hash, the "d_delete" method is called to check whether
 	it should be cached.  If it should not be cached, or if the dentry
 	is not hashed, it is deleted.  Otherwise cached dentries are put
 	into an LRU list to be reclaimed on memory shortage.
 
-  d_drop: this unhashes a dentry from its parents hash list.  A
+``d_drop``: this unhashes a dentry from its parents hash list.  A
 	subsequent call to dput() will deallocate the dentry if its
 	usage count drops to 0
 
-  d_delete: delete a dentry.  If there are no other open references to
+``d_delete``: delete a dentry.  If there are no other open references to
 	the dentry then the dentry is turned into a negative dentry
 	(the d_iput() method is called).  If there are other
 	references, then d_drop() is called instead
 
-  d_add: add a dentry to its parents hash list and then calls
+``d_add``: add a dentry to its parents hash list and then calls
 	d_instantiate()
 
-  d_instantiate: add a dentry to the alias hash list for the inode and
+``d_instantiate``: add a dentry to the alias hash list for the inode and
 	updates the "d_inode" member.  The "i_count" member in the
 	inode structure should be set/incremented.  If the inode
 	pointer is NULL, the dentry is called a "negative
 	dentry".  This function is commonly called when an inode is
 	created for an existing negative dentry
 
-  d_lookup: look up a dentry given its parent and path name component
+``d_lookup``: look up a dentry given its parent and path name component
 	It looks up the child of that given name from the dcache
 	hash table.  If it is found, the reference count is incremented
 	and the dentry is returned.  The caller must use dput()
-- 
2.21.0


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 14+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc to RST
  2019-05-15  0:29 [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc to RST Tobin C. Harding
                   ` (8 preceding siblings ...)
  2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 9/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Convert vfs.txt to RST Tobin C. Harding
@ 2019-05-29 22:30 ` Jonathan Corbet
  2019-05-30  6:01   ` Tobin C. Harding
                     ` (2 more replies)
  9 siblings, 3 replies; 14+ messages in thread
From: Jonathan Corbet @ 2019-05-29 22:30 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Tobin C. Harding
  Cc: Al Viro, Mauro Carvalho Chehab, Neil Brown, Randy Dunlap,
	linux-doc, linux-fsdevel, linux-kernel

On Wed, 15 May 2019 10:29:04 +1000
"Tobin C. Harding" <tobin@kernel.org> wrote:

> Here is an updated version of the VFS doc conversion.  This series in no
> way represents a final point for the VFS documentation rather it is a
> small step towards getting VFS docs updated.  This series does not
> update the content of vfs.txt, only does formatting.

I've finally gotten to this, sorry for taking so long.  Applying it to
docs-next turned out to be a bit of a chore; there have been intervening
changes to vfs.txt that we didn't want to lose.  But I did it.

Unfortunately, there's still a remaining issue.  You did a lot of list
conversions like this:

> -  struct file_system_type *fs_type: describes the filesystem, partly initialized
> +``struct file_system_type *fs_type``: describes the filesystem, partly initialized
>  	by the specific filesystem code

but that does not render the way you would like, trust me.  You really
want to use the list format, something like:

    ``struct file_system_type *fs_type``
	 describes the filesystem, partly initialized by the specific
	 filesystem code

There are, unfortunately, a lot of these to fix...  I bet it could be done
with an elisp function, but I don't have time to beat my head against that
wall right now.

Any chance you would have time to send me a followup patch fixing these
up?  I'll keep my branch with this set for now so there's no need to
rebase those.

Thanks,

jon

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 14+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc to RST
  2019-05-29 22:30 ` [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc " Jonathan Corbet
@ 2019-05-30  6:01   ` Tobin C. Harding
  2019-06-03 23:48   ` Tobin C. Harding
  2019-06-04  0:06   ` Tobin C. Harding
  2 siblings, 0 replies; 14+ messages in thread
From: Tobin C. Harding @ 2019-05-30  6:01 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jonathan Corbet
  Cc: Tobin C. Harding, Al Viro, Mauro Carvalho Chehab, Neil Brown,
	Randy Dunlap, linux-doc, linux-fsdevel, linux-kernel

On Wed, May 29, 2019 at 04:30:52PM -0600, Jonathan Corbet wrote:
> On Wed, 15 May 2019 10:29:04 +1000
> "Tobin C. Harding" <tobin@kernel.org> wrote:
> 
> > Here is an updated version of the VFS doc conversion.  This series in no
> > way represents a final point for the VFS documentation rather it is a
> > small step towards getting VFS docs updated.  This series does not
> > update the content of vfs.txt, only does formatting.
> 
> I've finally gotten to this, sorry for taking so long.  Applying it to
> docs-next turned out to be a bit of a chore; there have been intervening
> changes to vfs.txt that we didn't want to lose.  But I did it.
> 
> Unfortunately, there's still a remaining issue.  You did a lot of list
> conversions like this:
> 
> > -  struct file_system_type *fs_type: describes the filesystem, partly initialized
> > +``struct file_system_type *fs_type``: describes the filesystem, partly initialized
> >  	by the specific filesystem code
> 
> but that does not render the way you would like, trust me.  You really
> want to use the list format, something like:
> 
>     ``struct file_system_type *fs_type``
> 	 describes the filesystem, partly initialized by the specific
> 	 filesystem code

Ouch!  Yes I knew this was sub-optimal, I thought the HTML looked ok.
I'll fix them up as suggested.

> There are, unfortunately, a lot of these to fix...  I bet it could be done
> with an elisp function, but I don't have time to beat my head against that
> wall right now.

oh really?  That would actually make doing this much more enticing, I've
already done all these multiple times manually - learning nothing, some
elisp games would actually teach me something.  Cheers.

> Any chance you would have time to send me a followup patch fixing these
> up?  I'll keep my branch with this set for now so there's no need to
> rebase those.

Sure thing, patches to come.

Cheers,
Tobin.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 14+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc to RST
  2019-05-29 22:30 ` [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc " Jonathan Corbet
  2019-05-30  6:01   ` Tobin C. Harding
@ 2019-06-03 23:48   ` Tobin C. Harding
  2019-06-04  0:06   ` Tobin C. Harding
  2 siblings, 0 replies; 14+ messages in thread
From: Tobin C. Harding @ 2019-06-03 23:48 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jonathan Corbet
  Cc: Tobin C. Harding, Al Viro, Mauro Carvalho Chehab, Neil Brown,
	Randy Dunlap, linux-doc, linux-fsdevel, linux-kernel

On Wed, May 29, 2019 at 04:30:52PM -0600, Jonathan Corbet wrote:
> On Wed, 15 May 2019 10:29:04 +1000
> "Tobin C. Harding" <tobin@kernel.org> wrote:
> 
> > Here is an updated version of the VFS doc conversion.  This series in no
> > way represents a final point for the VFS documentation rather it is a
> > small step towards getting VFS docs updated.  This series does not
> > update the content of vfs.txt, only does formatting.
> 
> I've finally gotten to this, sorry for taking so long.  Applying it to
> docs-next turned out to be a bit of a chore; there have been intervening
> changes to vfs.txt that we didn't want to lose.  But I did it.
> 
> Unfortunately, there's still a remaining issue.  You did a lot of list
> conversions like this:
> 
> > -  struct file_system_type *fs_type: describes the filesystem, partly initialized
> > +``struct file_system_type *fs_type``: describes the filesystem, partly initialized
> >  	by the specific filesystem code
> 
> but that does not render the way you would like, trust me.  You really
> want to use the list format, something like:
> 
>     ``struct file_system_type *fs_type``
> 	 describes the filesystem, partly initialized by the specific
> 	 filesystem code
> 
> There are, unfortunately, a lot of these to fix...  I bet it could be done
> with an elisp function, but I don't have time to beat my head against that
> wall right now.
> 
> Any chance you would have time to send me a followup patch fixing these
> up?  I'll keep my branch with this set for now so there's no need to
> rebase those.

Is this branch public Jon?  I'll work on top of this series but if the
branch is public then I can check it applies, save you having problems.

Cheers,
Tobin.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 14+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc to RST
  2019-05-29 22:30 ` [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc " Jonathan Corbet
  2019-05-30  6:01   ` Tobin C. Harding
  2019-06-03 23:48   ` Tobin C. Harding
@ 2019-06-04  0:06   ` Tobin C. Harding
  2 siblings, 0 replies; 14+ messages in thread
From: Tobin C. Harding @ 2019-06-04  0:06 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jonathan Corbet
  Cc: Tobin C. Harding, Al Viro, Mauro Carvalho Chehab, Neil Brown,
	Randy Dunlap, linux-doc, linux-fsdevel, linux-kernel

On Wed, May 29, 2019 at 04:30:52PM -0600, Jonathan Corbet wrote:
> On Wed, 15 May 2019 10:29:04 +1000
> "Tobin C. Harding" <tobin@kernel.org> wrote:
> 
> > Here is an updated version of the VFS doc conversion.  This series in no
> > way represents a final point for the VFS documentation rather it is a
> > small step towards getting VFS docs updated.  This series does not
> > update the content of vfs.txt, only does formatting.
> 
> I've finally gotten to this, sorry for taking so long.  Applying it to
> docs-next turned out to be a bit of a chore; there have been intervening
> changes to vfs.txt that we didn't want to lose.  But I did it.
> 
> Unfortunately, there's still a remaining issue.  You did a lot of list
> conversions like this:
> 
> > -  struct file_system_type *fs_type: describes the filesystem, partly initialized
> > +``struct file_system_type *fs_type``: describes the filesystem, partly initialized
> >  	by the specific filesystem code
> 
> but that does not render the way you would like, trust me.  You really
> want to use the list format, something like:
> 
>     ``struct file_system_type *fs_type``
> 	 describes the filesystem, partly initialized by the specific
> 	 filesystem code

I was doubting you at first, this renders **way** better :)


	Tobin

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 14+ messages in thread

end of thread, other threads:[~2019-06-04  0:07 UTC | newest]

Thread overview: 14+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2019-05-15  0:29 [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc to RST Tobin C. Harding
2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 1/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Remove space before tab Tobin C. Harding
2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 2/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Use uniform space after period Tobin C. Harding
2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 3/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Use 72 character column width Tobin C. Harding
2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 4/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Use uniform spacing around headings Tobin C. Harding
2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 5/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Use correct initial heading Tobin C. Harding
2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 6/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Use SPDX identifier Tobin C. Harding
2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 7/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Fix pre-amble indentation Tobin C. Harding
2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 8/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Convert spaces to tabs Tobin C. Harding
2019-05-15  0:29 ` [PATCH v4 9/9] docs: filesystems: vfs: Convert vfs.txt to RST Tobin C. Harding
2019-05-29 22:30 ` [PATCH v4 0/9] docs: Convert VFS doc " Jonathan Corbet
2019-05-30  6:01   ` Tobin C. Harding
2019-06-03 23:48   ` Tobin C. Harding
2019-06-04  0:06   ` Tobin C. Harding

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