LKML Archive on lore.kernel.org
help / color / mirror / Atom feed
From: Yu Zhao <yuzhao@google.com>
To: linux-mm@kvack.org
Cc: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org, Hillf Danton <hdanton@sina.com>,
	page-reclaim@google.com, Yu Zhao <yuzhao@google.com>,
	Konstantin Kharlamov <Hi-Angel@yandex.ru>
Subject: [PATCH v4 05/11] mm: multigenerational lru: protection
Date: Wed, 18 Aug 2021 00:31:01 -0600	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <20210818063107.2696454-6-yuzhao@google.com> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20210818063107.2696454-1-yuzhao@google.com>

The protection is based on page access types and patterns. There are
two access types: one via page tables and the other via file
descriptors. The protection of the former type is by design stronger
because:
  1) The uncertainty in determining the access patterns of the former
  type is higher due to the coalesced nature of the accessed bit.
  2) The cost of evicting the former type is higher due to the TLB
  flushes required and the likelihood of involving I/O.
  3) The penalty of under-protecting the former type is higher because
  applications usually do not prepare themselves for major faults like
  they do for blocked I/O. For example, client applications commonly
  dedicate blocked I/O to separate threads to avoid UI janks that
  negatively affect user experience.

There are also two access patterns: one with temporal locality and the
other without. The latter pattern, e.g., random and sequential, needs
to be explicitly excluded to avoid weakening the protection of the
former pattern. Generally the former type follows the former pattern
unless MADV_SEQUENTIAL is specified and the latter type follows the
latter pattern unless outlying refaults have been observed.

Upon faulting, a page is added to the youngest generation, which
provides the strongest protection as the eviction will not consider
this page before the aging has scanned it at least twice. The first
scan clears the accessed bit set during the initial fault. And the
second scan makes sure this page has not been used since the first
scan. A page from any other generations is brought back to the
youngest generation whenever the aging finds the accessed bit set on
any of the PTEs mapping this page.

Unmapped pages are initially added to the oldest generation and then
conditionally protected by tiers. Pages accessed N times via file
descriptors belong to tier order_base_2(N). Each tier keeps track of
how many pages from it have refaulted. Tier 0 is the base tier and
pages from it are evicted unconditionally because there are no better
candidates. Pages from an upper tier are either evicted or moved to
the next generation, depending on whether this upper tier has a higher
refault rate than the base tier. This model has the following
advantages:
  1) It removes the cost in the buffered access path and reduces the
  overall cost of protection because pages are conditionally protected
  in the reclaim path.
  2) It takes mapped pages into account and avoids overprotecting
  pages accessed multiple times via file descriptors.
  3 Additional tiers improve the protection of pages accessed more
  than twice.

Signed-off-by: Yu Zhao <yuzhao@google.com>
Tested-by: Konstantin Kharlamov <Hi-Angel@yandex.ru>
---
 include/linux/mm.h    |  32 ++++++++++++
 include/linux/sched.h |   3 ++
 mm/memory.c           |   7 +++
 mm/swap.c             |  51 +++++++++++++++++-
 mm/vmscan.c           |  91 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
 mm/workingset.c       | 119 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
 6 files changed, 298 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)

diff --git a/include/linux/mm.h b/include/linux/mm.h
index 159b7c94e067..7a91518792ba 100644
--- a/include/linux/mm.h
+++ b/include/linux/mm.h
@@ -1778,6 +1778,25 @@ void unmap_mapping_pages(struct address_space *mapping,
 		pgoff_t start, pgoff_t nr, bool even_cows);
 void unmap_mapping_range(struct address_space *mapping,
 		loff_t const holebegin, loff_t const holelen, int even_cows);
+
+static inline void task_enter_nonseq_fault(void)
+{
+	WARN_ON(current->in_nonseq_fault);
+
+	current->in_nonseq_fault = 1;
+}
+
+static inline void task_exit_nonseq_fault(void)
+{
+	WARN_ON(!current->in_nonseq_fault);
+
+	current->in_nonseq_fault = 0;
+}
+
+static inline bool task_in_nonseq_fault(void)
+{
+	return current->in_nonseq_fault;
+}
 #else
 static inline vm_fault_t handle_mm_fault(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
 					 unsigned long address, unsigned int flags,
@@ -1799,6 +1818,19 @@ static inline void unmap_mapping_pages(struct address_space *mapping,
 		pgoff_t start, pgoff_t nr, bool even_cows) { }
 static inline void unmap_mapping_range(struct address_space *mapping,
 		loff_t const holebegin, loff_t const holelen, int even_cows) { }
+
+static inline void task_enter_nonseq_fault(void)
+{
+}
+
+static inline void task_exit_nonseq_fault(void)
+{
+}
+
+static inline bool task_in_nonseq_fault(void)
+{
+	return false;
+}
 #endif
 
 static inline void unmap_shared_mapping_range(struct address_space *mapping,
diff --git a/include/linux/sched.h b/include/linux/sched.h
index ec8d07d88641..fd41c9c86cd1 100644
--- a/include/linux/sched.h
+++ b/include/linux/sched.h
@@ -843,6 +843,9 @@ struct task_struct {
 #ifdef CONFIG_MEMCG
 	unsigned			in_user_fault:1;
 #endif
+#ifdef CONFIG_MMU
+	unsigned			in_nonseq_fault:1;
+#endif
 #ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT_BRK
 	unsigned			brk_randomized:1;
 #endif
diff --git a/mm/memory.c b/mm/memory.c
index 2f96179db219..fa40a5b7a7a7 100644
--- a/mm/memory.c
+++ b/mm/memory.c
@@ -4752,6 +4752,7 @@ vm_fault_t handle_mm_fault(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long address,
 			   unsigned int flags, struct pt_regs *regs)
 {
 	vm_fault_t ret;
+	bool nonseq_fault = !(vma->vm_flags & VM_SEQ_READ);
 
 	__set_current_state(TASK_RUNNING);
 
@@ -4773,11 +4774,17 @@ vm_fault_t handle_mm_fault(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long address,
 	if (flags & FAULT_FLAG_USER)
 		mem_cgroup_enter_user_fault();
 
+	if (nonseq_fault)
+		task_enter_nonseq_fault();
+
 	if (unlikely(is_vm_hugetlb_page(vma)))
 		ret = hugetlb_fault(vma->vm_mm, vma, address, flags);
 	else
 		ret = __handle_mm_fault(vma, address, flags);
 
+	if (nonseq_fault)
+		task_exit_nonseq_fault();
+
 	if (flags & FAULT_FLAG_USER) {
 		mem_cgroup_exit_user_fault();
 		/*
diff --git a/mm/swap.c b/mm/swap.c
index 19600430e536..0d3fb2ee3fd6 100644
--- a/mm/swap.c
+++ b/mm/swap.c
@@ -411,6 +411,43 @@ static void __lru_cache_activate_page(struct page *page)
 	local_unlock(&lru_pvecs.lock);
 }
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_LRU_GEN
+static void page_inc_usage(struct page *page)
+{
+	unsigned long usage;
+	unsigned long old_flags, new_flags;
+
+	if (PageUnevictable(page))
+		return;
+
+	/* see the comment on MAX_NR_TIERS */
+	do {
+		new_flags = old_flags = READ_ONCE(page->flags);
+
+		if (!(new_flags & BIT(PG_referenced))) {
+			new_flags |= BIT(PG_referenced);
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		if (!(new_flags & BIT(PG_workingset))) {
+			new_flags |= BIT(PG_workingset);
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		usage = new_flags & LRU_USAGE_MASK;
+		usage = min(usage + BIT(LRU_USAGE_PGOFF), LRU_USAGE_MASK);
+
+		new_flags &= ~LRU_USAGE_MASK;
+		new_flags |= usage;
+	} while (new_flags != old_flags &&
+		 cmpxchg(&page->flags, old_flags, new_flags) != old_flags);
+}
+#else
+static void page_inc_usage(struct page *page)
+{
+}
+#endif /* CONFIG_LRU_GEN */
+
 /*
  * Mark a page as having seen activity.
  *
@@ -425,6 +462,11 @@ void mark_page_accessed(struct page *page)
 {
 	page = compound_head(page);
 
+	if (lru_gen_enabled()) {
+		page_inc_usage(page);
+		return;
+	}
+
 	if (!PageReferenced(page)) {
 		SetPageReferenced(page);
 	} else if (PageUnevictable(page)) {
@@ -468,6 +510,11 @@ void lru_cache_add(struct page *page)
 	VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(PageActive(page) && PageUnevictable(page), page);
 	VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(PageLRU(page), page);
 
+	/* see the comment in lru_gen_add_page() */
+	if (lru_gen_enabled() && !PageUnevictable(page) &&
+	    task_in_nonseq_fault() && !(current->flags & PF_MEMALLOC))
+		SetPageActive(page);
+
 	get_page(page);
 	local_lock(&lru_pvecs.lock);
 	pvec = this_cpu_ptr(&lru_pvecs.lru_add);
@@ -569,7 +616,7 @@ static void lru_deactivate_file_fn(struct page *page, struct lruvec *lruvec)
 
 static void lru_deactivate_fn(struct page *page, struct lruvec *lruvec)
 {
-	if (PageActive(page) && !PageUnevictable(page)) {
+	if (!PageUnevictable(page) && (PageActive(page) || lru_gen_enabled())) {
 		int nr_pages = thp_nr_pages(page);
 
 		del_page_from_lru_list(page, lruvec);
@@ -684,7 +731,7 @@ void deactivate_file_page(struct page *page)
  */
 void deactivate_page(struct page *page)
 {
-	if (PageLRU(page) && PageActive(page) && !PageUnevictable(page)) {
+	if (PageLRU(page) && !PageUnevictable(page) && (PageActive(page) || lru_gen_enabled())) {
 		struct pagevec *pvec;
 
 		local_lock(&lru_pvecs.lock);
diff --git a/mm/vmscan.c b/mm/vmscan.c
index a02b5ff37e31..788b4d1ce149 100644
--- a/mm/vmscan.c
+++ b/mm/vmscan.c
@@ -1094,9 +1094,11 @@ static int __remove_mapping(struct address_space *mapping, struct page *page,
 
 	if (PageSwapCache(page)) {
 		swp_entry_t swap = { .val = page_private(page) };
-		mem_cgroup_swapout(page, swap);
+
+		/* get a shadow entry before page_memcg() is cleared */
 		if (reclaimed && !mapping_exiting(mapping))
 			shadow = workingset_eviction(page, target_memcg);
+		mem_cgroup_swapout(page, swap);
 		__delete_from_swap_cache(page, swap, shadow);
 		xa_unlock_irqrestore(&mapping->i_pages, flags);
 		put_swap_page(page, swap);
@@ -2813,6 +2815,93 @@ static bool __maybe_unused seq_is_valid(struct lruvec *lruvec)
 	       get_nr_gens(lruvec, 1) <= MAX_NR_GENS;
 }
 
+/******************************************************************************
+ *                          refault feedback loop
+ ******************************************************************************/
+
+/*
+ * A feedback loop modeled after the PID controller. Currently supports the
+ * proportional (P) and the integral (I) terms; the derivative (D) term can be
+ * added if necessary. The setpoint (SP) is the desired position; the process
+ * variable (PV) is the measured position. The error is the difference between
+ * the SP and the PV. A positive error results in a positive control output
+ * correction, which, in our case, is to allow eviction.
+ *
+ * The P term is the refault rate of the current generation being evicted. The I
+ * term is the exponential moving average of the refault rates of the previous
+ * generations, using the smoothing factor 1/2.
+ *
+ * Our goal is to make sure upper tiers have similar refault rates as the base
+ * tier. That is we try to be fair to all tiers by maintaining similar refault
+ * rates across them.
+ */
+struct controller_pos {
+	unsigned long refaulted;
+	unsigned long total;
+	int gain;
+};
+
+static void read_controller_pos(struct controller_pos *pos, struct lruvec *lruvec,
+				int type, int tier, int gain)
+{
+	struct lrugen *lrugen = &lruvec->evictable;
+	int hist = lru_hist_from_seq(lrugen->min_seq[type]);
+
+	pos->refaulted = lrugen->avg_refaulted[type][tier] +
+			 atomic_long_read(&lrugen->refaulted[hist][type][tier]);
+	pos->total = lrugen->avg_total[type][tier] +
+		     atomic_long_read(&lrugen->evicted[hist][type][tier]);
+	if (tier)
+		pos->total += lrugen->protected[hist][type][tier - 1];
+	pos->gain = gain;
+}
+
+static void reset_controller_pos(struct lruvec *lruvec, int gen, int type)
+{
+	int tier;
+	int hist = lru_hist_from_seq(gen);
+	struct lrugen *lrugen = &lruvec->evictable;
+	bool carryover = gen == lru_gen_from_seq(lrugen->min_seq[type]);
+
+	if (!carryover && NR_STAT_GENS == 1)
+		return;
+
+	for (tier = 0; tier < MAX_NR_TIERS; tier++) {
+		if (carryover) {
+			unsigned long sum;
+
+			sum = lrugen->avg_refaulted[type][tier] +
+			      atomic_long_read(&lrugen->refaulted[hist][type][tier]);
+			WRITE_ONCE(lrugen->avg_refaulted[type][tier], sum / 2);
+
+			sum = lrugen->avg_total[type][tier] +
+			      atomic_long_read(&lrugen->evicted[hist][type][tier]);
+			if (tier)
+				sum += lrugen->protected[hist][type][tier - 1];
+			WRITE_ONCE(lrugen->avg_total[type][tier], sum / 2);
+
+			if (NR_STAT_GENS > 1)
+				continue;
+		}
+
+		atomic_long_set(&lrugen->refaulted[hist][type][tier], 0);
+		atomic_long_set(&lrugen->evicted[hist][type][tier], 0);
+		if (tier)
+			WRITE_ONCE(lrugen->protected[hist][type][tier - 1], 0);
+	}
+}
+
+static bool positive_ctrl_err(struct controller_pos *sp, struct controller_pos *pv)
+{
+	/*
+	 * Allow eviction if the PV has a limited number of refaulted pages or a
+	 * lower refault rate than the SP.
+	 */
+	return pv->refaulted < SWAP_CLUSTER_MAX ||
+	       pv->refaulted * max(sp->total, 1UL) * sp->gain <=
+	       sp->refaulted * max(pv->total, 1UL) * pv->gain;
+}
+
 /******************************************************************************
  *                          state change
  ******************************************************************************/
diff --git a/mm/workingset.c b/mm/workingset.c
index 5ba3e42446fa..75dbfba773a6 100644
--- a/mm/workingset.c
+++ b/mm/workingset.c
@@ -187,7 +187,6 @@ static unsigned int bucket_order __read_mostly;
 static void *pack_shadow(int memcgid, pg_data_t *pgdat, unsigned long eviction,
 			 bool workingset)
 {
-	eviction >>= bucket_order;
 	eviction &= EVICTION_MASK;
 	eviction = (eviction << MEM_CGROUP_ID_SHIFT) | memcgid;
 	eviction = (eviction << NODES_SHIFT) | pgdat->node_id;
@@ -212,10 +211,116 @@ static void unpack_shadow(void *shadow, int *memcgidp, pg_data_t **pgdat,
 
 	*memcgidp = memcgid;
 	*pgdat = NODE_DATA(nid);
-	*evictionp = entry << bucket_order;
+	*evictionp = entry;
 	*workingsetp = workingset;
 }
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_LRU_GEN
+
+static int page_get_usage(struct page *page)
+{
+	unsigned long flags = READ_ONCE(page->flags);
+
+	BUILD_BUG_ON(LRU_GEN_WIDTH + LRU_USAGE_WIDTH > BITS_PER_LONG - EVICTION_SHIFT);
+
+	/* see the comment on MAX_NR_TIERS */
+	return flags & BIT(PG_workingset) ?
+	       (flags & LRU_USAGE_MASK) >> LRU_USAGE_PGOFF : 0;
+}
+
+/* Return a token to be stored in the shadow entry of a page being evicted. */
+static void *lru_gen_eviction(struct page *page)
+{
+	int hist, tier;
+	unsigned long token;
+	unsigned long min_seq;
+	struct lruvec *lruvec;
+	struct lrugen *lrugen;
+	int type = page_is_file_lru(page);
+	int usage = page_get_usage(page);
+	bool workingset = PageWorkingset(page);
+	struct mem_cgroup *memcg = page_memcg(page);
+	struct pglist_data *pgdat = page_pgdat(page);
+
+	lruvec = mem_cgroup_lruvec(memcg, pgdat);
+	lrugen = &lruvec->evictable;
+	min_seq = READ_ONCE(lrugen->min_seq[type]);
+	token = (min_seq << LRU_USAGE_WIDTH) | usage;
+
+	hist = lru_hist_from_seq(min_seq);
+	tier = lru_tier_from_usage(usage + workingset);
+	atomic_long_add(thp_nr_pages(page), &lrugen->evicted[hist][type][tier]);
+
+	return pack_shadow(mem_cgroup_id(memcg), pgdat, token, workingset);
+}
+
+/* Count a refaulted page based on the token stored in its shadow entry. */
+static void lru_gen_refault(struct page *page, void *shadow)
+{
+	int hist, tier, usage;
+	int memcg_id;
+	bool workingset;
+	unsigned long token;
+	unsigned long min_seq;
+	struct lruvec *lruvec;
+	struct lrugen *lrugen;
+	struct mem_cgroup *memcg;
+	struct pglist_data *pgdat;
+	int type = page_is_file_lru(page);
+
+	unpack_shadow(shadow, &memcg_id, &pgdat, &token, &workingset);
+	if (page_pgdat(page) != pgdat)
+		return;
+
+	rcu_read_lock();
+	memcg = page_memcg_rcu(page);
+	if (mem_cgroup_id(memcg) != memcg_id)
+		goto unlock;
+
+	usage = token & (BIT(LRU_USAGE_WIDTH) - 1);
+	if (usage && !workingset)
+		goto unlock;
+
+	token >>= LRU_USAGE_WIDTH;
+	lruvec = mem_cgroup_lruvec(memcg, pgdat);
+	lrugen = &lruvec->evictable;
+	min_seq = READ_ONCE(lrugen->min_seq[type]);
+	if (token != (min_seq & (EVICTION_MASK >> LRU_USAGE_WIDTH)))
+		goto unlock;
+
+	hist = lru_hist_from_seq(min_seq);
+	tier = lru_tier_from_usage(usage + workingset);
+	atomic_long_add(thp_nr_pages(page), &lrugen->refaulted[hist][type][tier]);
+	inc_lruvec_state(lruvec, WORKINGSET_REFAULT_BASE + type);
+
+	/*
+	 * Tiers don't offer any protection to pages accessed via page tables.
+	 * That's what generations do. Tiers can't fully protect pages after
+	 * their usage has exceeded the max value. Conservatively count these
+	 * two conditions as stalls even though they might not indicate any real
+	 * memory pressure.
+	 */
+	if (task_in_nonseq_fault() || usage + workingset == BIT(LRU_USAGE_WIDTH)) {
+		SetPageWorkingset(page);
+		inc_lruvec_state(lruvec, WORKINGSET_RESTORE_BASE + type);
+	}
+unlock:
+	rcu_read_unlock();
+}
+
+#else /* CONFIG_LRU_GEN */
+
+static void *lru_gen_eviction(struct page *page)
+{
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+static void lru_gen_refault(struct page *page, void *shadow)
+{
+}
+
+#endif /* CONFIG_LRU_GEN */
+
 /**
  * workingset_age_nonresident - age non-resident entries as LRU ages
  * @lruvec: the lruvec that was aged
@@ -264,10 +369,14 @@ void *workingset_eviction(struct page *page, struct mem_cgroup *target_memcg)
 	VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(page_count(page), page);
 	VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageLocked(page), page);
 
+	if (lru_gen_enabled())
+		return lru_gen_eviction(page);
+
 	lruvec = mem_cgroup_lruvec(target_memcg, pgdat);
 	/* XXX: target_memcg can be NULL, go through lruvec */
 	memcgid = mem_cgroup_id(lruvec_memcg(lruvec));
 	eviction = atomic_long_read(&lruvec->nonresident_age);
+	eviction >>= bucket_order;
 	workingset_age_nonresident(lruvec, thp_nr_pages(page));
 	return pack_shadow(memcgid, pgdat, eviction, PageWorkingset(page));
 }
@@ -296,7 +405,13 @@ void workingset_refault(struct page *page, void *shadow)
 	bool workingset;
 	int memcgid;
 
+	if (lru_gen_enabled()) {
+		lru_gen_refault(page, shadow);
+		return;
+	}
+
 	unpack_shadow(shadow, &memcgid, &pgdat, &eviction, &workingset);
+	eviction <<= bucket_order;
 
 	rcu_read_lock();
 	/*
-- 
2.33.0.rc1.237.g0d66db33f3-goog


  parent reply	other threads:[~2021-08-18  6:31 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 18+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2021-08-18  6:30 [PATCH v4 00/11] Multigenerational LRU Framework Yu Zhao
2021-08-18  6:30 ` [PATCH v4 01/11] mm: x86, arm64: add arch_has_hw_pte_young() Yu Zhao
2021-08-19  9:19   ` Will Deacon
2021-08-19 21:23     ` Yu Zhao
2021-08-18  6:30 ` [PATCH v4 02/11] mm: x86: add CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_NONLEAF_PMD_YOUNG Yu Zhao
2021-08-18  6:30 ` [PATCH v4 03/11] mm/vmscan.c: refactor shrink_node() Yu Zhao
2021-08-18  6:31 ` [PATCH v4 04/11] mm: multigenerational lru: groundwork Yu Zhao
2021-08-18  6:31 ` Yu Zhao [this message]
2021-08-18  6:31 ` [PATCH v4 06/11] mm: multigenerational lru: mm_struct list Yu Zhao
2021-08-18  6:31 ` [PATCH v4 07/11] mm: multigenerational lru: aging Yu Zhao
2021-08-18  6:31 ` [PATCH v4 08/11] mm: multigenerational lru: eviction Yu Zhao
2021-08-18  6:31 ` [PATCH v4 09/11] mm: multigenerational lru: user interface Yu Zhao
2021-08-18  6:31 ` [PATCH v4 10/11] mm: multigenerational lru: Kconfig Yu Zhao
2021-08-18  6:31 ` [PATCH v4 11/11] mm: multigenerational lru: documentation Yu Zhao
2021-10-09  5:43 ` [PATCH v4 00/11] Multigenerational LRU Framework bot
2021-10-21 19:41 ` bot
2021-11-02  0:20 ` bot
2021-11-09  2:13 ` bot

Reply instructions:

You may reply publicly to this message via plain-text email
using any one of the following methods:

* Save the following mbox file, import it into your mail client,
  and reply-to-all from there: mbox

  Avoid top-posting and favor interleaved quoting:
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Posting_style#Interleaved_style

* Reply using the --to, --cc, and --in-reply-to
  switches of git-send-email(1):

  git send-email \
    --in-reply-to=20210818063107.2696454-6-yuzhao@google.com \
    --to=yuzhao@google.com \
    --cc=Hi-Angel@yandex.ru \
    --cc=hdanton@sina.com \
    --cc=linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org \
    --cc=linux-mm@kvack.org \
    --cc=page-reclaim@google.com \
    --subject='Re: [PATCH v4 05/11] mm: multigenerational lru: protection' \
    /path/to/YOUR_REPLY

  https://kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/git-send-email.html

* If your mail client supports setting the In-Reply-To header
  via mailto: links, try the mailto: link

This is a public inbox, see mirroring instructions
for how to clone and mirror all data and code used for this inbox;
as well as URLs for NNTP newsgroup(s).