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From: "Srivatsa S. Bhat" <srivatsa@csail.mit.edu>
To: Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@linaro.org>
Cc: linux-fsdevel@vger.kernel.org,
	linux-block <linux-block@vger.kernel.org>,
	linux-ext4@vger.kernel.org, cgroups@vger.kernel.org,
	linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org, axboe@kernel.dk, jack@suse.cz,
	jmoyer@redhat.com, tytso@mit.edu, amakhalov@vmware.com,
	anishs@vmware.com, srivatsab@vmware.com
Subject: Re: CFQ idling kills I/O performance on ext4 with blkio cgroup controller
Date: Sat, 18 May 2019 13:50:42 -0700	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <46c6a4be-f567-3621-2e16-0e341762b828@csail.mit.edu> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <1812E450-14EF-4D5A-8F31-668499E13652@linaro.org>

On 5/18/19 11:39 AM, Paolo Valente wrote:
> I've addressed these issues in my last batch of improvements for BFQ,
> which landed in the upcoming 5.2. If you give it a try, and still see
> the problem, then I'll be glad to reproduce it, and hopefully fix it
> for you.
>

Hi Paolo,

Thank you for looking into this!

I just tried current mainline at commit 72cf0b07, but unfortunately
didn't see any improvement:

dd if=/dev/zero of=/root/test.img bs=512 count=10000 oflag=dsync

With mq-deadline, I get:

5120000 bytes (5.1 MB, 4.9 MiB) copied, 3.90981 s, 1.3 MB/s

With bfq, I get:
5120000 bytes (5.1 MB, 4.9 MiB) copied, 84.8216 s, 60.4 kB/s

Please let me know if any more info about my setup might be helpful.

Thank you!

Regards,
Srivatsa
VMware Photon OS

> 
>> Il giorno 18 mag 2019, alle ore 00:16, Srivatsa S. Bhat <srivatsa@csail.mit.edu> ha scritto:
>>
>>
>> Hi,
>>
>> One of my colleagues noticed upto 10x - 30x drop in I/O throughput
>> running the following command, with the CFQ I/O scheduler:
>>
>> dd if=/dev/zero of=/root/test.img bs=512 count=10000 oflags=dsync
>>
>> Throughput with CFQ: 60 KB/s
>> Throughput with noop or deadline: 1.5 MB/s - 2 MB/s
>>
>> I spent some time looking into it and found that this is caused by the
>> undesirable interaction between 4 different components:
>>
>> - blkio cgroup controller enabled
>> - ext4 with the jbd2 kthread running in the root blkio cgroup
>> - dd running on ext4, in any other blkio cgroup than that of jbd2
>> - CFQ I/O scheduler with defaults for slice_idle and group_idle
>>
>>
>> When docker is enabled, systemd creates a blkio cgroup called
>> system.slice to run system services (and docker) under it, and a
>> separate blkio cgroup called user.slice for user processes. So, when
>> dd is invoked, it runs under user.slice.
>>
>> The dd command above includes the dsync flag, which performs an
>> fdatasync after every write to the output file. Since dd is writing to
>> a file on ext4, jbd2 will be active, committing transactions
>> corresponding to those fdatasync requests from dd. (In other words, dd
>> depends on jdb2, in order to make forward progress). But jdb2 being a
>> kernel thread, runs in the root blkio cgroup, as opposed to dd, which
>> runs under user.slice.
>>
>> Now, if the I/O scheduler in use for the underlying block device is
>> CFQ, then its inter-queue/inter-group idling takes effect (via the
>> slice_idle and group_idle parameters, both of which default to 8ms).
>> Therefore, everytime CFQ switches between processing requests from dd
>> vs jbd2, this 8ms idle time is injected, which slows down the overall
>> throughput tremendously!
>>
>> To verify this theory, I tried various experiments, and in all cases,
>> the 4 pre-conditions mentioned above were necessary to reproduce this
>> performance drop. For example, if I used an XFS filesystem (which
>> doesn't use a separate kthread like jbd2 for journaling), or if I dd'ed
>> directly to a block device, I couldn't reproduce the performance
>> issue. Similarly, running dd in the root blkio cgroup (where jbd2
>> runs) also gets full performance; as does using the noop or deadline
>> I/O schedulers; or even CFQ itself, with slice_idle and group_idle set
>> to zero.
>>
>> These results were reproduced on a Linux VM (kernel v4.19) on ESXi,
>> both with virtualized storage as well as with disk pass-through,
>> backed by a rotational hard disk in both cases. The same problem was
>> also seen with the BFQ I/O scheduler in kernel v5.1.
>>
>> Searching for any earlier discussions of this problem, I found an old
>> thread on LKML that encountered this behavior [1], as well as a docker
>> github issue [2] with similar symptoms (mentioned later in the
>> thread).
>>
>> So, I'm curious to know if this is a well-understood problem and if
>> anybody has any thoughts on how to fix it.
>>
>> Thank you very much!
>>
>>
>> [1]. https://lkml.org/lkml/2015/11/19/359
>>
>> [2]. https://github.com/moby/moby/issues/21485
>>     https://github.com/moby/moby/issues/21485#issuecomment-222941103
>>
>> Regards,
>> Srivatsa
> 


  parent reply	other threads:[~2019-05-18 20:50 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 52+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2019-05-17 22:16 Srivatsa S. Bhat
2019-05-18 18:39 ` Paolo Valente
2019-05-18 19:28   ` Theodore Ts'o
2019-05-20  9:15     ` Jan Kara
2019-05-20 10:45       ` Paolo Valente
2019-05-21 16:48       ` Theodore Ts'o
2019-05-21 18:19         ` Josef Bacik
2019-05-21 19:10           ` Theodore Ts'o
2019-05-20 10:38     ` Paolo Valente
2019-05-21  7:38       ` Andrea Righi
2019-05-18 20:50   ` Srivatsa S. Bhat [this message]
2019-05-20 10:19     ` Paolo Valente
2019-05-20 22:45       ` Srivatsa S. Bhat
2019-05-21  6:23         ` Paolo Valente
2019-05-21  7:19           ` Srivatsa S. Bhat
2019-05-21  9:10           ` Jan Kara
2019-05-21 16:31             ` Theodore Ts'o
2019-05-21 11:25       ` Paolo Valente
2019-05-21 13:20         ` Paolo Valente
2019-05-21 16:21           ` Paolo Valente
2019-05-21 17:38             ` Paolo Valente
2019-05-21 22:51               ` Srivatsa S. Bhat
2019-05-22  8:05                 ` Paolo Valente
2019-05-22  9:02                   ` Srivatsa S. Bhat
2019-05-22  9:12                     ` Paolo Valente
2019-05-22 10:02                       ` Srivatsa S. Bhat
2019-05-22  9:09                   ` Paolo Valente
2019-05-22 10:01                     ` Srivatsa S. Bhat
2019-05-22 10:54                       ` Paolo Valente
2019-05-23  2:30                         ` Srivatsa S. Bhat
2019-05-23  9:19                           ` Paolo Valente
2019-05-23 17:22                             ` Paolo Valente
2019-05-23 23:43                               ` Srivatsa S. Bhat
2019-05-24  6:51                                 ` Paolo Valente
2019-05-24  7:56                                   ` Paolo Valente
2019-05-29  1:09                                   ` Srivatsa S. Bhat
2019-05-29  7:41                                     ` Paolo Valente
2019-05-30  8:29                                       ` Srivatsa S. Bhat
2019-05-30 10:45                                         ` Paolo Valente
2019-06-02  7:04                                           ` Srivatsa S. Bhat
2019-06-11 22:34                                             ` Srivatsa S. Bhat
2019-06-12 13:04                                               ` Jan Kara
2019-06-12 19:36                                                 ` Srivatsa S. Bhat
2019-06-13  6:02                                                   ` Greg Kroah-Hartman
2019-06-13 19:03                                                     ` Srivatsa S. Bhat
2019-06-13  8:20                                                   ` Jan Kara
2019-06-13 19:05                                                     ` Srivatsa S. Bhat
2019-06-13  8:37                                                   ` Jens Axboe
2019-06-13  5:46                                               ` Paolo Valente
2019-06-13 19:13                                                 ` Srivatsa S. Bhat
2019-05-23 23:32                           ` Srivatsa S. Bhat
2019-05-30  8:38                             ` Srivatsa S. Bhat

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