LKML Archive on lore.kernel.org
help / color / mirror / Atom feed
* [RFC][PATCH v2] Controlling kexec behaviour when hardware error happened.
@ 2011-02-09 16:35 Seiji Aguchi
  2011-02-09 16:51 ` Greg KH
                   ` (3 more replies)
  0 siblings, 4 replies; 8+ messages in thread
From: Seiji Aguchi @ 2011-02-09 16:35 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: hpa, andi, ebiederm, bp, seto.hidetoshi, gregkh, linux-doc,
	linux-kernel, linux-mm, x86, dle-develop, amwang
  Cc: Satoru Moriya

Hi,

I submitted a quite similar patch last December.

http://www.spinics.net/lists/linux-mm/msg13157.html

I retry it with different description of the purpose.

[Changelog]
from v1:
    - Change name of sysctl parameter ,kexec_on_mce, to kexec_on_hwerr. 
    - Move variable declaration from <asm/mce.h> to <kernel/panic.h>.
    - Remove CONFIG_X86_MCE in *.c files.
    - Modify [Purpose]/[Patch Description].

[Purpose]
There are some logging features of firmware/hardware, SEL,BMC, etc, in enterprise servers.
We investigate the firmware/hardware logs first when MCE occurred and replace the broken hardware.
So, memory dump is not necessary for detecting root cause of machine check.
Also, we can reduce down-time by skipping kdump.

Of course, there are a lot of servers which don't have logging features of firmware/hardware.
So, I proposed a option controlling kexec behaviour when hardware error occurred. 

[Patch Description]
This patch adds a sysctl option ,kernel.kexec_on_hwerr, controlling kexec behaviour when hardware error occurred.

 - Permission
  - 0644
 - Value(default is "1")
   - non-zero: Kexec is enabled regardless of hardware error.
   - 0: Kexec is disabled when MCE occurred.
   

Matrix of kernel.kexec_on_hwerr value ,hardware error and kexec

--------------------------------------------------
kernel.kexec_on_hwerr| hardware error | kexec
--------------------------------------------------
non-zero             | occurred       | enabled
                     -----------------------------
                     | not occurred   | enabled
--------------------------------------------------
0                    | occurred       | disabled
                     |----------------------------
                     | not occurred   | enabled
--------------------------------------------------


Any comments and suggestions are welcome.

 Signed-off-by: Seiji Aguchi <seiji.aguchi@hds.com>

---
 Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt  |   11 +++++++++++
 arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c |    2 ++
 include/linux/kernel.h           |    2 ++
 include/linux/sysctl.h           |    1 +
 kernel/panic.c                   |   15 ++++++++++++++-
 kernel/sysctl.c                  |    8 ++++++++
 kernel/sysctl_binary.c           |    1 +
 mm/memory-failure.c              |    2 ++
 8 files changed, 41 insertions(+), 1 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt b/Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt index 11d5ced..3159111 100644
--- a/Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt
+++ b/Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt
@@ -34,6 +34,7 @@ show up in /proc/sys/kernel:
 - hotplug
 - java-appletviewer           [ binfmt_java, obsolete ]
 - java-interpreter            [ binfmt_java, obsolete ]
+- kexec_on_hwerr              [ x86 only ]
 - kptr_restrict
 - kstack_depth_to_print       [ X86 only ]
 - l2cr                        [ PPC only ]
@@ -261,6 +262,16 @@ This flag controls the L2 cache of G3 processor boards. If  0, the cache is disabled. Enabled if nonzero.
 
 ==============================================================
+kexec_on_hwerr: (X86 only)
+
+Controls the behaviour of kexec when panic occurred due to hardware 
+error.
+Default value is 1.
+
+0: Kexec is disabled.
+non-zero: Kexec is enabled.
+
+==============================================================
 
 kptr_restrict:
 
diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c
index d916183..e76b47b 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c
@@ -944,6 +944,8 @@ void do_machine_check(struct pt_regs *regs, long error_code)
 
 	percpu_inc(mce_exception_count);
 
+	hwerr_flag = 1;
+
 	if (notify_die(DIE_NMI, "machine check", regs, error_code,
 			   18, SIGKILL) == NOTIFY_STOP)
 		goto out;
diff --git a/include/linux/kernel.h b/include/linux/kernel.h index 2fe6e84..c2fba7c 100644
--- a/include/linux/kernel.h
+++ b/include/linux/kernel.h
@@ -242,6 +242,8 @@ extern void add_taint(unsigned flag);  extern int test_taint(unsigned flag);  extern unsigned long get_taint(void);  extern int root_mountflags;
+extern int kexec_on_hwerr;
+extern int hwerr_flag;
 
 extern bool early_boot_irqs_disabled;
 
diff --git a/include/linux/sysctl.h b/include/linux/sysctl.h index 7bb5cb6..8ae5bfe 100644
--- a/include/linux/sysctl.h
+++ b/include/linux/sysctl.h
@@ -153,6 +153,7 @@ enum
 	KERN_MAX_LOCK_DEPTH=74, /* int: rtmutex's maximum lock depth */
 	KERN_NMI_WATCHDOG=75, /* int: enable/disable nmi watchdog */
 	KERN_PANIC_ON_NMI=76, /* int: whether we will panic on an unrecovered */
+	KERN_KEXEC_ON_HWERR=77, /* int: bevaviour of kexec for hardware error 
+*/
 };
 
 
diff --git a/kernel/panic.c b/kernel/panic.c index 991bb87..84c1d2e 100644
--- a/kernel/panic.c
+++ b/kernel/panic.c
@@ -28,6 +28,8 @@
 #define PANIC_BLINK_SPD 18
 
 int panic_on_oops;
+int kexec_on_hwerr = 1;
+int hwerr_flag;
 static unsigned long tainted_mask;
 static int pause_on_oops;
 static int pause_on_oops_flag;
@@ -45,6 +47,16 @@ static long no_blink(int state)
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static int kexec_should_skip(void)
+{
+	if (!kexec_on_hwerr && hwerr_flag) {
+		printk(KERN_WARNING "Kexec is skipped because hardware error "
+		       "occurred.\n");
+		return 1;
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
 /* Returns how long it waited in ms */
 long (*panic_blink)(int state);
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(panic_blink);
@@ -86,7 +98,8 @@ NORET_TYPE void panic(const char * fmt, ...)
 	 * everything else.
 	 * Do we want to call this before we try to display a message?
 	 */
-	crash_kexec(NULL);
+	if (!kexec_should_skip())
+		crash_kexec(NULL);
 
 	kmsg_dump(KMSG_DUMP_PANIC);
 
diff --git a/kernel/sysctl.c b/kernel/sysctl.c index 0f1bd83..f78edd8 100644
--- a/kernel/sysctl.c
+++ b/kernel/sysctl.c
@@ -811,6 +811,14 @@ static struct ctl_table kern_table[] = {
 		.mode		= 0644,
 		.proc_handler	= proc_dointvec,
 	},
+	{
+		.procname	= "kexec_on_hwerr",
+		.data		= &kexec_on_hwerr,
+		.maxlen		= sizeof(int),
+		.mode		= 0644,
+		.proc_handler	= proc_dointvec,
+	},
+
 #endif
 #if defined(CONFIG_MMU)
 	{
diff --git a/kernel/sysctl_binary.c b/kernel/sysctl_binary.c index b875bed..8d572ca 100644
--- a/kernel/sysctl_binary.c
+++ b/kernel/sysctl_binary.c
@@ -137,6 +137,7 @@ static const struct bin_table bin_kern_table[] = {
 	{ CTL_INT,	KERN_COMPAT_LOG,		"compat-log" },
 	{ CTL_INT,	KERN_MAX_LOCK_DEPTH,		"max_lock_depth" },
 	{ CTL_INT,	KERN_PANIC_ON_NMI,		"panic_on_unrecovered_nmi" },
+	{ CTL_INT,	KERN_KEXEC_ON_HWERR,		"kexec_on_hwerr" },
 	{}
 };
 
diff --git a/mm/memory-failure.c b/mm/memory-failure.c index 0207c2f..0178f47 100644
--- a/mm/memory-failure.c
+++ b/mm/memory-failure.c
@@ -994,6 +994,8 @@ int __memory_failure(unsigned long pfn, int trapno, int flags)
 	int res;
 	unsigned int nr_pages;
 
+	hwerr_flag = 1;
+
 	if (!sysctl_memory_failure_recovery)
 		panic("Memory failure from trap %d on page %lx", trapno, pfn);
 
--
1.7.1

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC][PATCH v2] Controlling kexec behaviour when hardware error happened.
  2011-02-09 16:35 [RFC][PATCH v2] Controlling kexec behaviour when hardware error happened Seiji Aguchi
@ 2011-02-09 16:51 ` Greg KH
  2011-02-09 17:06 ` Eric W. Biederman
                   ` (2 subsequent siblings)
  3 siblings, 0 replies; 8+ messages in thread
From: Greg KH @ 2011-02-09 16:51 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Seiji Aguchi
  Cc: hpa, andi, ebiederm, bp, seto.hidetoshi, linux-doc, linux-kernel,
	linux-mm, x86, dle-develop, amwang, Satoru Moriya

On Wed, Feb 09, 2011 at 11:35:43AM -0500, Seiji Aguchi wrote:
> --- a/include/linux/sysctl.h
> +++ b/include/linux/sysctl.h
> @@ -153,6 +153,7 @@ enum
>  	KERN_MAX_LOCK_DEPTH=74, /* int: rtmutex's maximum lock depth */
>  	KERN_NMI_WATCHDOG=75, /* int: enable/disable nmi watchdog */
>  	KERN_PANIC_ON_NMI=76, /* int: whether we will panic on an unrecovered */
> +	KERN_KEXEC_ON_HWERR=77, /* int: bevaviour of kexec for hardware error 
> +*/

Odd trailing comment on the next line.



^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC][PATCH v2] Controlling kexec behaviour when hardware error happened.
  2011-02-09 16:35 [RFC][PATCH v2] Controlling kexec behaviour when hardware error happened Seiji Aguchi
  2011-02-09 16:51 ` Greg KH
@ 2011-02-09 17:06 ` Eric W. Biederman
  2011-02-09 17:07 ` Eric W. Biederman
  2011-02-10  8:36 ` Hidetoshi Seto
  3 siblings, 0 replies; 8+ messages in thread
From: Eric W. Biederman @ 2011-02-09 17:06 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Seiji Aguchi
  Cc: hpa, andi, bp, seto.hidetoshi, gregkh, linux-doc, linux-kernel,
	linux-mm, x86, dle-develop, amwang, Satoru Moriya

Seiji Aguchi <seiji.aguchi@hds.com> writes:

> Hi,
>
> I submitted a quite similar patch last December.
>
> http://www.spinics.net/lists/linux-mm/msg13157.html
>
> I retry it with different description of the purpose.
>
> [Changelog]
> from v1:
>     - Change name of sysctl parameter ,kexec_on_mce, to kexec_on_hwerr. 
>     - Move variable declaration from <asm/mce.h> to <kernel/panic.h>.
>     - Remove CONFIG_X86_MCE in *.c files.
>     - Modify [Purpose]/[Patch Description].
>
> [Purpose]
> There are some logging features of firmware/hardware, SEL,BMC, etc, in enterprise servers.
> We investigate the firmware/hardware logs first when MCE occurred and replace the broken hardware.
> So, memory dump is not necessary for detecting root cause of machine check.
> Also, we can reduce down-time by skipping kdump.
>
> Of course, there are a lot of servers which don't have logging features of firmware/hardware.
> So, I proposed a option controlling kexec behaviour when hardware error occurred. 

Mostly this seems reasonable.  If we can get the logic simple enough it
is fool proof I am for it.

> [Patch Description]
> This patch adds a sysctl option ,kernel.kexec_on_hwerr, controlling kexec behaviour when hardware error occurred.
>
>  - Permission
>   - 0644
>  - Value(default is "1")
>    - non-zero: Kexec is enabled regardless of hardware error.
>    - 0: Kexec is disabled when MCE occurred.
>    
>
> Matrix of kernel.kexec_on_hwerr value ,hardware error and kexec

If we do a version that is potentially arch agnostic but x86 for now,
and we call it kexec_on_logged_hwerr.  Because it is important that we
expect that the hardware will log the error.

Is there any reason we can't put logic to decided if we should write
a crashdump in the crashdump userspace?

Eric


> --------------------------------------------------
> kernel.kexec_on_hwerr| hardware error | kexec
> --------------------------------------------------
> non-zero             | occurred       | enabled
>                      -----------------------------
>                      | not occurred   | enabled
> --------------------------------------------------
> 0                    | occurred       | disabled
>                      |----------------------------
>                      | not occurred   | enabled
> --------------------------------------------------
>
>
> Any comments and suggestions are welcome.
>
>  Signed-off-by: Seiji Aguchi <seiji.aguchi@hds.com>
>
> ---
>  Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt  |   11 +++++++++++
>  arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c |    2 ++
>  include/linux/kernel.h           |    2 ++
>  include/linux/sysctl.h           |    1 +
>  kernel/panic.c                   |   15 ++++++++++++++-
>  kernel/sysctl.c                  |    8 ++++++++
>  kernel/sysctl_binary.c           |    1 +
>  mm/memory-failure.c              |    2 ++
>  8 files changed, 41 insertions(+), 1 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt b/Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt index 11d5ced..3159111 100644
> --- a/Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt
> +++ b/Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt
> @@ -34,6 +34,7 @@ show up in /proc/sys/kernel:
>  - hotplug
>  - java-appletviewer           [ binfmt_java, obsolete ]
>  - java-interpreter            [ binfmt_java, obsolete ]
> +- kexec_on_hwerr              [ x86 only ]
>  - kptr_restrict
>  - kstack_depth_to_print       [ X86 only ]
>  - l2cr                        [ PPC only ]
> @@ -261,6 +262,16 @@ This flag controls the L2 cache of G3 processor boards. If  0, the cache is disabled. Enabled if nonzero.
>  
>  ==============================================================
> +kexec_on_hwerr: (X86 only)
> +
> +Controls the behaviour of kexec when panic occurred due to hardware 
> +error.
> +Default value is 1.
> +
> +0: Kexec is disabled.
> +non-zero: Kexec is enabled.
> +
> +==============================================================
>  
>  kptr_restrict:
>  
> diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c
> index d916183..e76b47b 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c
> +++ b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c
> @@ -944,6 +944,8 @@ void do_machine_check(struct pt_regs *regs, long error_code)
>  
>  	percpu_inc(mce_exception_count);
>  
> +	hwerr_flag = 1;
> +
>  	if (notify_die(DIE_NMI, "machine check", regs, error_code,
>  			   18, SIGKILL) == NOTIFY_STOP)
>  		goto out;
> diff --git a/include/linux/kernel.h b/include/linux/kernel.h index 2fe6e84..c2fba7c 100644
> --- a/include/linux/kernel.h
> +++ b/include/linux/kernel.h
> @@ -242,6 +242,8 @@ extern void add_taint(unsigned flag);  extern int test_taint(unsigned flag);  extern unsigned long get_taint(void);  extern int root_mountflags;
> +extern int kexec_on_hwerr;
> +extern int hwerr_flag;
>  
>  extern bool early_boot_irqs_disabled;
>  
> diff --git a/include/linux/sysctl.h b/include/linux/sysctl.h index 7bb5cb6..8ae5bfe 100644
> --- a/include/linux/sysctl.h
> +++ b/include/linux/sysctl.h
> @@ -153,6 +153,7 @@ enum
>  	KERN_MAX_LOCK_DEPTH=74, /* int: rtmutex's maximum lock depth */
>  	KERN_NMI_WATCHDOG=75, /* int: enable/disable nmi watchdog */
>  	KERN_PANIC_ON_NMI=76, /* int: whether we will panic on an unrecovered */
> +	KERN_KEXEC_ON_HWERR=77, /* int: bevaviour of kexec for hardware error 
> +*/
Don't change this file.  You don't need a binary number.
>  };
>  
>  
> diff --git a/kernel/panic.c b/kernel/panic.c index 991bb87..84c1d2e 100644
> --- a/kernel/panic.c
> +++ b/kernel/panic.c
> @@ -28,6 +28,8 @@
>  #define PANIC_BLINK_SPD 18
>  
>  int panic_on_oops;
> +int kexec_on_hwerr = 1;
> +int hwerr_flag;
>  static unsigned long tainted_mask;
>  static int pause_on_oops;
>  static int pause_on_oops_flag;
> @@ -45,6 +47,16 @@ static long no_blink(int state)
>  	return 0;
>  }
>  
> +static int kexec_should_skip(void)
> +{
> +	if (!kexec_on_hwerr && hwerr_flag) {
> +		printk(KERN_WARNING "Kexec is skipped because hardware error "
> +		       "occurred.\n");
> +		return 1;
> +	}
> +	return 0;
> +}
> +
>  /* Returns how long it waited in ms */
>  long (*panic_blink)(int state);
>  EXPORT_SYMBOL(panic_blink);
> @@ -86,7 +98,8 @@ NORET_TYPE void panic(const char * fmt, ...)
>  	 * everything else.
>  	 * Do we want to call this before we try to display a message?
>  	 */
> -	crash_kexec(NULL);
> +	if (!kexec_should_skip())
> +		crash_kexec(NULL);
>  
>  	kmsg_dump(KMSG_DUMP_PANIC);
>  
> diff --git a/kernel/sysctl.c b/kernel/sysctl.c index 0f1bd83..f78edd8 100644
> --- a/kernel/sysctl.c
> +++ b/kernel/sysctl.c
> @@ -811,6 +811,14 @@ static struct ctl_table kern_table[] = {
>  		.mode		= 0644,
>  		.proc_handler	= proc_dointvec,
>  	},
> +	{
> +		.procname	= "kexec_on_hwerr",
> +		.data		= &kexec_on_hwerr,
> +		.maxlen		= sizeof(int),
> +		.mode		= 0644,
> +		.proc_handler	= proc_dointvec,
> +	},
> +
>  #endif
>  #if defined(CONFIG_MMU)
>  	{
> diff --git a/kernel/sysctl_binary.c b/kernel/sysctl_binary.c index b875bed..8d572ca 100644
> --- a/kernel/sysctl_binary.c
> +++ b/kernel/sysctl_binary.c
> @@ -137,6 +137,7 @@ static const struct bin_table bin_kern_table[] = {
>  	{ CTL_INT,	KERN_COMPAT_LOG,		"compat-log" },
>  	{ CTL_INT,	KERN_MAX_LOCK_DEPTH,		"max_lock_depth" },
>  	{ CTL_INT,	KERN_PANIC_ON_NMI,		"panic_on_unrecovered_nmi" },
> +	{ CTL_INT,	KERN_KEXEC_ON_HWERR,		"kexec_on_hwerr" },
>  	{}
Don't change this file.  No one uses the binary interface.
>  };
>  
> diff --git a/mm/memory-failure.c b/mm/memory-failure.c index 0207c2f..0178f47 100644
> --- a/mm/memory-failure.c
> +++ b/mm/memory-failure.c
> @@ -994,6 +994,8 @@ int __memory_failure(unsigned long pfn, int trapno, int flags)
>  	int res;
>  	unsigned int nr_pages;
>  
> +	hwerr_flag = 1;
> +
>  	if (!sysctl_memory_failure_recovery)
>  		panic("Memory failure from trap %d on page %lx", trapno,
> pfn);

I get the feeling that we should either call a function besides panic or
do something different so that we aren't controlling this trough an
implicit parameter set in a global variable.  That just seems scary racy
and hard to understand by reading the code.

Eric

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC][PATCH v2] Controlling kexec behaviour when hardware error happened.
  2011-02-09 16:35 [RFC][PATCH v2] Controlling kexec behaviour when hardware error happened Seiji Aguchi
  2011-02-09 16:51 ` Greg KH
  2011-02-09 17:06 ` Eric W. Biederman
@ 2011-02-09 17:07 ` Eric W. Biederman
  2011-02-10  3:04   ` Cong Wang
  2011-02-10  8:36 ` Hidetoshi Seto
  3 siblings, 1 reply; 8+ messages in thread
From: Eric W. Biederman @ 2011-02-09 17:07 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Seiji Aguchi
  Cc: hpa, andi, bp, seto.hidetoshi, gregkh, linux-doc, linux-kernel,
	linux-mm, x86, dle-develop, amwang, Satoru Moriya

Seiji Aguchi <seiji.aguchi@hds.com> writes:

> Hi,
>
> I submitted a quite similar patch last December.
>
> http://www.spinics.net/lists/linux-mm/msg13157.html
>
> I retry it with different description of the purpose.
>
> [Changelog]
> from v1:
>     - Change name of sysctl parameter ,kexec_on_mce, to kexec_on_hwerr. 
>     - Move variable declaration from <asm/mce.h> to <kernel/panic.h>.
>     - Remove CONFIG_X86_MCE in *.c files.
>     - Modify [Purpose]/[Patch Description].
>
> [Purpose]
> There are some logging features of firmware/hardware, SEL,BMC, etc, in enterprise servers.
> We investigate the firmware/hardware logs first when MCE occurred and replace the broken hardware.
> So, memory dump is not necessary for detecting root cause of machine check.
> Also, we can reduce down-time by skipping kdump.
>
> Of course, there are a lot of servers which don't have logging features of firmware/hardware.
> So, I proposed a option controlling kexec behaviour when hardware error occurred. 

Mostly this seems reasonable.  If we can get the logic simple enough it
is fool proof I am for it.

> [Patch Description]
> This patch adds a sysctl option ,kernel.kexec_on_hwerr, controlling kexec behaviour when hardware error occurred.
>
>  - Permission
>   - 0644
>  - Value(default is "1")
>    - non-zero: Kexec is enabled regardless of hardware error.
>    - 0: Kexec is disabled when MCE occurred.
>    
>
> Matrix of kernel.kexec_on_hwerr value ,hardware error and kexec

If we do a version that is potentially arch agnostic but x86 for now,
and we call it kexec_on_logged_hwerr.  Because it is important that we
expect that the hardware will log the error.

Is there any reason we can't put logic to decided if we should write
a crashdump in the crashdump userspace?

Eric


> --------------------------------------------------
> kernel.kexec_on_hwerr| hardware error | kexec
> --------------------------------------------------
> non-zero             | occurred       | enabled
>                      -----------------------------
>                      | not occurred   | enabled
> --------------------------------------------------
> 0                    | occurred       | disabled
>                      |----------------------------
>                      | not occurred   | enabled
> --------------------------------------------------
>
>
> Any comments and suggestions are welcome.
>
>  Signed-off-by: Seiji Aguchi <seiji.aguchi@hds.com>
>
> ---
>  Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt  |   11 +++++++++++
>  arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c |    2 ++
>  include/linux/kernel.h           |    2 ++
>  include/linux/sysctl.h           |    1 +
>  kernel/panic.c                   |   15 ++++++++++++++-
>  kernel/sysctl.c                  |    8 ++++++++
>  kernel/sysctl_binary.c           |    1 +
>  mm/memory-failure.c              |    2 ++
>  8 files changed, 41 insertions(+), 1 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt b/Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt index 11d5ced..3159111 100644
> --- a/Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt
> +++ b/Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt
> @@ -34,6 +34,7 @@ show up in /proc/sys/kernel:
>  - hotplug
>  - java-appletviewer           [ binfmt_java, obsolete ]
>  - java-interpreter            [ binfmt_java, obsolete ]
> +- kexec_on_hwerr              [ x86 only ]
>  - kptr_restrict
>  - kstack_depth_to_print       [ X86 only ]
>  - l2cr                        [ PPC only ]
> @@ -261,6 +262,16 @@ This flag controls the L2 cache of G3 processor boards. If  0, the cache is disabled. Enabled if nonzero.
>  
>  ==============================================================
> +kexec_on_hwerr: (X86 only)
> +
> +Controls the behaviour of kexec when panic occurred due to hardware 
> +error.
> +Default value is 1.
> +
> +0: Kexec is disabled.
> +non-zero: Kexec is enabled.
> +
> +==============================================================
>  
>  kptr_restrict:
>  
> diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c
> index d916183..e76b47b 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c
> +++ b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c
> @@ -944,6 +944,8 @@ void do_machine_check(struct pt_regs *regs, long error_code)
>  
>  	percpu_inc(mce_exception_count);
>  
> +	hwerr_flag = 1;
> +
>  	if (notify_die(DIE_NMI, "machine check", regs, error_code,
>  			   18, SIGKILL) == NOTIFY_STOP)
>  		goto out;
> diff --git a/include/linux/kernel.h b/include/linux/kernel.h index 2fe6e84..c2fba7c 100644
> --- a/include/linux/kernel.h
> +++ b/include/linux/kernel.h
> @@ -242,6 +242,8 @@ extern void add_taint(unsigned flag);  extern int test_taint(unsigned flag);  extern unsigned long get_taint(void);  extern int root_mountflags;
> +extern int kexec_on_hwerr;
> +extern int hwerr_flag;
>  
>  extern bool early_boot_irqs_disabled;
>  
> diff --git a/include/linux/sysctl.h b/include/linux/sysctl.h index 7bb5cb6..8ae5bfe 100644
> --- a/include/linux/sysctl.h
> +++ b/include/linux/sysctl.h
> @@ -153,6 +153,7 @@ enum
>  	KERN_MAX_LOCK_DEPTH=74, /* int: rtmutex's maximum lock depth */
>  	KERN_NMI_WATCHDOG=75, /* int: enable/disable nmi watchdog */
>  	KERN_PANIC_ON_NMI=76, /* int: whether we will panic on an unrecovered */
> +	KERN_KEXEC_ON_HWERR=77, /* int: bevaviour of kexec for hardware error 
> +*/
Don't change this file.  You don't need a binary number.
>  };
>  
>  
> diff --git a/kernel/panic.c b/kernel/panic.c index 991bb87..84c1d2e 100644
> --- a/kernel/panic.c
> +++ b/kernel/panic.c
> @@ -28,6 +28,8 @@
>  #define PANIC_BLINK_SPD 18
>  
>  int panic_on_oops;
> +int kexec_on_hwerr = 1;
> +int hwerr_flag;
>  static unsigned long tainted_mask;
>  static int pause_on_oops;
>  static int pause_on_oops_flag;
> @@ -45,6 +47,16 @@ static long no_blink(int state)
>  	return 0;
>  }
>  
> +static int kexec_should_skip(void)
> +{
> +	if (!kexec_on_hwerr && hwerr_flag) {
> +		printk(KERN_WARNING "Kexec is skipped because hardware error "
> +		       "occurred.\n");
> +		return 1;
> +	}
> +	return 0;
> +}
> +
>  /* Returns how long it waited in ms */
>  long (*panic_blink)(int state);
>  EXPORT_SYMBOL(panic_blink);
> @@ -86,7 +98,8 @@ NORET_TYPE void panic(const char * fmt, ...)
>  	 * everything else.
>  	 * Do we want to call this before we try to display a message?
>  	 */
> -	crash_kexec(NULL);
> +	if (!kexec_should_skip())
> +		crash_kexec(NULL);
>  
>  	kmsg_dump(KMSG_DUMP_PANIC);
>  
> diff --git a/kernel/sysctl.c b/kernel/sysctl.c index 0f1bd83..f78edd8 100644
> --- a/kernel/sysctl.c
> +++ b/kernel/sysctl.c
> @@ -811,6 +811,14 @@ static struct ctl_table kern_table[] = {
>  		.mode		= 0644,
>  		.proc_handler	= proc_dointvec,
>  	},
> +	{
> +		.procname	= "kexec_on_hwerr",
> +		.data		= &kexec_on_hwerr,
> +		.maxlen		= sizeof(int),
> +		.mode		= 0644,
> +		.proc_handler	= proc_dointvec,
> +	},
> +
>  #endif
>  #if defined(CONFIG_MMU)
>  	{
> diff --git a/kernel/sysctl_binary.c b/kernel/sysctl_binary.c index b875bed..8d572ca 100644
> --- a/kernel/sysctl_binary.c
> +++ b/kernel/sysctl_binary.c
> @@ -137,6 +137,7 @@ static const struct bin_table bin_kern_table[] = {
>  	{ CTL_INT,	KERN_COMPAT_LOG,		"compat-log" },
>  	{ CTL_INT,	KERN_MAX_LOCK_DEPTH,		"max_lock_depth" },
>  	{ CTL_INT,	KERN_PANIC_ON_NMI,		"panic_on_unrecovered_nmi" },
> +	{ CTL_INT,	KERN_KEXEC_ON_HWERR,		"kexec_on_hwerr" },
>  	{}
Don't change this file.  No one uses the binary interface.
>  };
>  
> diff --git a/mm/memory-failure.c b/mm/memory-failure.c index 0207c2f..0178f47 100644
> --- a/mm/memory-failure.c
> +++ b/mm/memory-failure.c
> @@ -994,6 +994,8 @@ int __memory_failure(unsigned long pfn, int trapno, int flags)
>  	int res;
>  	unsigned int nr_pages;
>  
> +	hwerr_flag = 1;
> +
>  	if (!sysctl_memory_failure_recovery)
>  		panic("Memory failure from trap %d on page %lx", trapno,
> pfn);

I get the feeling that we should either call a function besides panic or
do something different so that we aren't controlling this trough an
implicit parameter set in a global variable.  That just seems scary racy
and hard to understand by reading the code.

Eric

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC][PATCH v2] Controlling kexec behaviour when hardware error happened.
  2011-02-09 17:07 ` Eric W. Biederman
@ 2011-02-10  3:04   ` Cong Wang
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 8+ messages in thread
From: Cong Wang @ 2011-02-10  3:04 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Eric W. Biederman
  Cc: Seiji Aguchi, hpa, andi, bp, seto.hidetoshi, gregkh, linux-doc,
	linux-kernel, linux-mm, x86, dle-develop, Satoru Moriya

于 2011年02月10日 01:07, Eric W. Biederman 写道:
>
> Is there any reason we can't put logic to decided if we should write
> a crashdump in the crashdump userspace?
>

Doesn't this already provide a choice for the user to decide if he wants
a crashdump via sysctl?

Except some minor issues pointed by you and Greg, this patch looks fine
for me.

Thanks.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC][PATCH v2] Controlling kexec behaviour when hardware error happened.
  2011-02-09 16:35 [RFC][PATCH v2] Controlling kexec behaviour when hardware error happened Seiji Aguchi
                   ` (2 preceding siblings ...)
  2011-02-09 17:07 ` Eric W. Biederman
@ 2011-02-10  8:36 ` Hidetoshi Seto
  2011-02-10  9:14   ` Borislav Petkov
  3 siblings, 1 reply; 8+ messages in thread
From: Hidetoshi Seto @ 2011-02-10  8:36 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Seiji Aguchi
  Cc: hpa, andi, ebiederm, bp, gregkh, linux-doc, linux-kernel,
	linux-mm, x86, dle-develop, amwang, Satoru Moriya

(2011/02/10 1:35), Seiji Aguchi wrote:
> Hi,
> 
> I submitted a quite similar patch last December.
> 
> http://www.spinics.net/lists/linux-mm/msg13157.html
> 
> I retry it with different description of the purpose.
> 
> [Changelog]
> from v1:
>     - Change name of sysctl parameter ,kexec_on_mce, to kexec_on_hwerr. 
>     - Move variable declaration from <asm/mce.h> to <kernel/panic.h>.
>     - Remove CONFIG_X86_MCE in *.c files.
>     - Modify [Purpose]/[Patch Description].
> 
> [Purpose]
> There are some logging features of firmware/hardware, SEL,BMC, etc, in enterprise servers.
> We investigate the firmware/hardware logs first when MCE occurred and replace the broken hardware.
> So, memory dump is not necessary for detecting root cause of machine check.
> Also, we can reduce down-time by skipping kdump.
> 
> Of course, there are a lot of servers which don't have logging features of firmware/hardware.
> So, I proposed a option controlling kexec behaviour when hardware error occurred. 
> 
> [Patch Description]
> This patch adds a sysctl option ,kernel.kexec_on_hwerr, controlling kexec behaviour when hardware error occurred.
> 
>  - Permission
>   - 0644
>  - Value(default is "1")
>    - non-zero: Kexec is enabled regardless of hardware error.
>    - 0: Kexec is disabled when MCE occurred.
>    
> 
> Matrix of kernel.kexec_on_hwerr value ,hardware error and kexec
> 
> --------------------------------------------------
> kernel.kexec_on_hwerr| hardware error | kexec
> --------------------------------------------------
> non-zero             | occurred       | enabled
>                      -----------------------------
>                      | not occurred   | enabled
> --------------------------------------------------
> 0                    | occurred       | disabled
>                      |----------------------------
>                      | not occurred   | enabled
> --------------------------------------------------
> 
> 
> Any comments and suggestions are welcome.
> 
>  Signed-off-by: Seiji Aguchi <seiji.aguchi@hds.com>
> 
> ---
>  Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt  |   11 +++++++++++
>  arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c |    2 ++
>  include/linux/kernel.h           |    2 ++
>  include/linux/sysctl.h           |    1 +
>  kernel/panic.c                   |   15 ++++++++++++++-
>  kernel/sysctl.c                  |    8 ++++++++
>  kernel/sysctl_binary.c           |    1 +
>  mm/memory-failure.c              |    2 ++
>  8 files changed, 41 insertions(+), 1 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt b/Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt index 11d5ced..3159111 100644
> --- a/Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt
> +++ b/Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt
> @@ -34,6 +34,7 @@ show up in /proc/sys/kernel:
>  - hotplug
>  - java-appletviewer           [ binfmt_java, obsolete ]
>  - java-interpreter            [ binfmt_java, obsolete ]
> +- kexec_on_hwerr              [ x86 only ]
>  - kptr_restrict
>  - kstack_depth_to_print       [ X86 only ]
>  - l2cr                        [ PPC only ]
> @@ -261,6 +262,16 @@ This flag controls the L2 cache of G3 processor boards. If  0, the cache is disabled. Enabled if nonzero.
>  
>  ==============================================================
> +kexec_on_hwerr: (X86 only)
> +
> +Controls the behaviour of kexec when panic occurred due to hardware 
> +error.
> +Default value is 1.
> +
> +0: Kexec is disabled.
> +non-zero: Kexec is enabled.
> +
> +==============================================================
>  
>  kptr_restrict:
>  
> diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c
> index d916183..e76b47b 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c
> +++ b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c
> @@ -944,6 +944,8 @@ void do_machine_check(struct pt_regs *regs, long error_code)
>  
>  	percpu_inc(mce_exception_count);
>  
> +	hwerr_flag = 1;
> +
>  	if (notify_die(DIE_NMI, "machine check", regs, error_code,
>  			   18, SIGKILL) == NOTIFY_STOP)
>  		goto out;

Now x86 supports some recoverable machine check, so setting
flag here will prevent running kexec on systems that have
encountered such recoverable machine check and recovered.

I think mce_panic() is proper place to set this flag "hwerr_flag".

> diff --git a/include/linux/kernel.h b/include/linux/kernel.h index 2fe6e84..c2fba7c 100644
> --- a/include/linux/kernel.h
> +++ b/include/linux/kernel.h
> @@ -242,6 +242,8 @@ extern void add_taint(unsigned flag);  extern int test_taint(unsigned flag);  extern unsigned long get_taint(void);  extern int root_mountflags;
> +extern int kexec_on_hwerr;
> +extern int hwerr_flag;
>  
>  extern bool early_boot_irqs_disabled;
>  
> diff --git a/include/linux/sysctl.h b/include/linux/sysctl.h index 7bb5cb6..8ae5bfe 100644
> --- a/include/linux/sysctl.h
> +++ b/include/linux/sysctl.h
> @@ -153,6 +153,7 @@ enum
>  	KERN_MAX_LOCK_DEPTH=74, /* int: rtmutex's maximum lock depth */
>  	KERN_NMI_WATCHDOG=75, /* int: enable/disable nmi watchdog */
>  	KERN_PANIC_ON_NMI=76, /* int: whether we will panic on an unrecovered */
> +	KERN_KEXEC_ON_HWERR=77, /* int: bevaviour of kexec for hardware error 
> +*/
>  };
>  
>  
> diff --git a/kernel/panic.c b/kernel/panic.c index 991bb87..84c1d2e 100644
> --- a/kernel/panic.c
> +++ b/kernel/panic.c
> @@ -28,6 +28,8 @@
>  #define PANIC_BLINK_SPD 18
>  
>  int panic_on_oops;
> +int kexec_on_hwerr = 1;
> +int hwerr_flag;
>  static unsigned long tainted_mask;
>  static int pause_on_oops;
>  static int pause_on_oops_flag;
> @@ -45,6 +47,16 @@ static long no_blink(int state)
>  	return 0;
>  }
>  
> +static int kexec_should_skip(void)
> +{
> +	if (!kexec_on_hwerr && hwerr_flag) {
> +		printk(KERN_WARNING "Kexec is skipped because hardware error "
> +		       "occurred.\n");
> +		return 1;
> +	}
> +	return 0;
> +}
> +
>  /* Returns how long it waited in ms */
>  long (*panic_blink)(int state);
>  EXPORT_SYMBOL(panic_blink);
> @@ -86,7 +98,8 @@ NORET_TYPE void panic(const char * fmt, ...)
>  	 * everything else.
>  	 * Do we want to call this before we try to display a message?
>  	 */
> -	crash_kexec(NULL);
> +	if (!kexec_should_skip())
> +		crash_kexec(NULL);
>  
>  	kmsg_dump(KMSG_DUMP_PANIC);
>  
> diff --git a/kernel/sysctl.c b/kernel/sysctl.c index 0f1bd83..f78edd8 100644
> --- a/kernel/sysctl.c
> +++ b/kernel/sysctl.c
> @@ -811,6 +811,14 @@ static struct ctl_table kern_table[] = {
>  		.mode		= 0644,
>  		.proc_handler	= proc_dointvec,
>  	},
> +	{
> +		.procname	= "kexec_on_hwerr",
> +		.data		= &kexec_on_hwerr,
> +		.maxlen		= sizeof(int),
> +		.mode		= 0644,
> +		.proc_handler	= proc_dointvec,
> +	},
> +
>  #endif
>  #if defined(CONFIG_MMU)
>  	{
> diff --git a/kernel/sysctl_binary.c b/kernel/sysctl_binary.c index b875bed..8d572ca 100644
> --- a/kernel/sysctl_binary.c
> +++ b/kernel/sysctl_binary.c
> @@ -137,6 +137,7 @@ static const struct bin_table bin_kern_table[] = {
>  	{ CTL_INT,	KERN_COMPAT_LOG,		"compat-log" },
>  	{ CTL_INT,	KERN_MAX_LOCK_DEPTH,		"max_lock_depth" },
>  	{ CTL_INT,	KERN_PANIC_ON_NMI,		"panic_on_unrecovered_nmi" },
> +	{ CTL_INT,	KERN_KEXEC_ON_HWERR,		"kexec_on_hwerr" },
>  	{}
>  };
>  
> diff --git a/mm/memory-failure.c b/mm/memory-failure.c index 0207c2f..0178f47 100644
> --- a/mm/memory-failure.c
> +++ b/mm/memory-failure.c
> @@ -994,6 +994,8 @@ int __memory_failure(unsigned long pfn, int trapno, int flags)
>  	int res;
>  	unsigned int nr_pages;
>  
> +	hwerr_flag = 1;
> +
>  	if (!sysctl_memory_failure_recovery)
>  		panic("Memory failure from trap %d on page %lx", trapno, pfn);
>  

For similar reason, setting flag here is not good for
systems working after isolating some poisoned memory page.

Why not:
 if (!sysctl_memory_failure_recovery) {
 	hwerr_flag = 1;
 	panic("Memory failure from trap %d on page %lx", trapno, pfn);
 }

Thanks,
H.Seto


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC][PATCH v2] Controlling kexec behaviour when hardware error happened.
  2011-02-10  8:36 ` Hidetoshi Seto
@ 2011-02-10  9:14   ` Borislav Petkov
  2011-02-14  1:20     ` Hidetoshi Seto
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 8+ messages in thread
From: Borislav Petkov @ 2011-02-10  9:14 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Hidetoshi Seto
  Cc: Seiji Aguchi, hpa, andi, ebiederm, gregkh, linux-doc,
	linux-kernel, linux-mm, x86, dle-develop, amwang, Satoru Moriya

On Thu, Feb 10, 2011 at 05:36:58PM +0900, Hidetoshi Seto wrote:
> (2011/02/10 1:35), Seiji Aguchi wrote:

[..]

> > diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c
> > index d916183..e76b47b 100644
> > --- a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c
> > +++ b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c
> > @@ -944,6 +944,8 @@ void do_machine_check(struct pt_regs *regs, long error_code)
> >  
> >  	percpu_inc(mce_exception_count);
> >  
> > +	hwerr_flag = 1;
> > +
> >  	if (notify_die(DIE_NMI, "machine check", regs, error_code,
> >  			   18, SIGKILL) == NOTIFY_STOP)
> >  		goto out;
> 
> Now x86 supports some recoverable machine check, so setting
> flag here will prevent running kexec on systems that have
> encountered such recoverable machine check and recovered.
> 
> I think mce_panic() is proper place to set this flag "hwerr_flag".

I agree, in that case it is unsafe to run kexec only after the error
cannot be recovered by software.

Also, hwerr_flag is really a bad naming choice, how about
"hwerr_unrecoverable" or "hw_compromised" or "recovery_futile" or
"hw_incurable" or simply say what happened: "pcc" = processor context
corrupt (and a reliable restarting might not be possible). This could be
used by others too, besides kexec.

[..]

> > diff --git a/mm/memory-failure.c b/mm/memory-failure.c index 0207c2f..0178f47 100644
> > --- a/mm/memory-failure.c
> > +++ b/mm/memory-failure.c
> > @@ -994,6 +994,8 @@ int __memory_failure(unsigned long pfn, int trapno, int flags)
> >  	int res;
> >  	unsigned int nr_pages;
> >  
> > +	hwerr_flag = 1;
> > +
> >  	if (!sysctl_memory_failure_recovery)
> >  		panic("Memory failure from trap %d on page %lx", trapno, pfn);
> >  
> 
> For similar reason, setting flag here is not good for
> systems working after isolating some poisoned memory page.
> 
> Why not:
>  if (!sysctl_memory_failure_recovery) {
>  	hwerr_flag = 1;
>  	panic("Memory failure from trap %d on page %lx", trapno, pfn);
>  }

Why do we need that in memory-failure.c at all? I mean, when we consume
the UC, we'll end up in mce_panic() anyway.

-- 
Regards/Gruss,
    Boris.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC][PATCH v2] Controlling kexec behaviour when hardware error happened.
  2011-02-10  9:14   ` Borislav Petkov
@ 2011-02-14  1:20     ` Hidetoshi Seto
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 8+ messages in thread
From: Hidetoshi Seto @ 2011-02-14  1:20 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Borislav Petkov, Seiji Aguchi, hpa, andi, ebiederm, gregkh,
	linux-doc, linux-kernel, linux-mm, x86, dle-develop, amwang,
	Satoru Moriya

(2011/02/10 18:14), Borislav Petkov wrote:
> On Thu, Feb 10, 2011 at 05:36:58PM +0900, Hidetoshi Seto wrote:
>> (2011/02/10 1:35), Seiji Aguchi wrote:
> 
> [..]
> 
>>> diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c
>>> index d916183..e76b47b 100644
>>> --- a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c
>>> +++ b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce.c
>>> @@ -944,6 +944,8 @@ void do_machine_check(struct pt_regs *regs, long error_code)
>>>  
>>>  	percpu_inc(mce_exception_count);
>>>  
>>> +	hwerr_flag = 1;
>>> +
>>>  	if (notify_die(DIE_NMI, "machine check", regs, error_code,
>>>  			   18, SIGKILL) == NOTIFY_STOP)
>>>  		goto out;
>>
>> Now x86 supports some recoverable machine check, so setting
>> flag here will prevent running kexec on systems that have
>> encountered such recoverable machine check and recovered.
>>
>> I think mce_panic() is proper place to set this flag "hwerr_flag".
> 
> I agree, in that case it is unsafe to run kexec only after the error
> cannot be recovered by software.
> 
> Also, hwerr_flag is really a bad naming choice, how about
> "hwerr_unrecoverable" or "hw_compromised" or "recovery_futile" or
> "hw_incurable" or simply say what happened: "pcc" = processor context
> corrupt (and a reliable restarting might not be possible). This could be
> used by others too, besides kexec.

Or how about something like hwerr_panic() to clear that the panic is
requested due to hardware error.

Anyway, Aguchi-san, please note that we should not turn off kexec before
encountering fatal hardware error and before printing/transmitting
enough hardware error log to out of this system.

> 
> [..]
> 
>>> diff --git a/mm/memory-failure.c b/mm/memory-failure.c index 0207c2f..0178f47 100644
>>> --- a/mm/memory-failure.c
>>> +++ b/mm/memory-failure.c
>>> @@ -994,6 +994,8 @@ int __memory_failure(unsigned long pfn, int trapno, int flags)
>>>  	int res;
>>>  	unsigned int nr_pages;
>>>  
>>> +	hwerr_flag = 1;
>>> +
>>>  	if (!sysctl_memory_failure_recovery)
>>>  		panic("Memory failure from trap %d on page %lx", trapno, pfn);
>>>  
>>
>> For similar reason, setting flag here is not good for
>> systems working after isolating some poisoned memory page.
>>
>> Why not:
>>  if (!sysctl_memory_failure_recovery) {
>>  	hwerr_flag = 1;
>>  	panic("Memory failure from trap %d on page %lx", trapno, pfn);
>>  }
> 
> Why do we need that in memory-failure.c at all? I mean, when we consume
> the UC, we'll end up in mce_panic() anyway.

One possible answer is that memory-failure.c is not x86 specific.


Thanks,
H.Seto


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

end of thread, other threads:[~2011-02-14  1:22 UTC | newest]

Thread overview: 8+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2011-02-09 16:35 [RFC][PATCH v2] Controlling kexec behaviour when hardware error happened Seiji Aguchi
2011-02-09 16:51 ` Greg KH
2011-02-09 17:06 ` Eric W. Biederman
2011-02-09 17:07 ` Eric W. Biederman
2011-02-10  3:04   ` Cong Wang
2011-02-10  8:36 ` Hidetoshi Seto
2011-02-10  9:14   ` Borislav Petkov
2011-02-14  1:20     ` Hidetoshi Seto

This is a public inbox, see mirroring instructions
for how to clone and mirror all data and code used for this inbox;
as well as URLs for NNTP newsgroup(s).